Grubi previd

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Grubim previdom u šahu se naziva izuzetno loš potez. Do grubog previda dolazi obično iz nepažnje, zbog nedostatka vremena ili slabe koncentracije. Pošto je definicija greške subjektivna, uglavnom je zavisna od kvaliteta igrača. Slab se potez kod početnika može objasniti neiskustvom, kako u tehnici, tako i u koncentraciji i praćenju igre, dok se slab potez kod velemajstora i vrhunskih igrača smatra previdom ili grubim previdom. U šahovskoj notaciji greške i previdi ovog tipa označavaju se dvama upitnicima (??).

Grubi previdi vrlo su česti kod početnika, kako zbog pogrešnog procesa razmišljanja, tako i zbog pogrešne i nerazvijene tehnike. Veoma je bitno nakon svakog protivničkog poteza razmotriti mogućnosti tog poteza te stvarne razloge za njegovo odigravanje. Nepoštivanje ovog osnovnog pravila neizbježno dovodi do grubih previda, koji vode ka gubitku materijala i partije.

Jedna tehnika koja je ranije preporučivana kako bi se izbjegli grubi previdi jeste da se planirani potez zapiše na zapisnik partije, a zatim da se još jednom pogleda pozicija prije no što se taj potez povuče.[1][2] Ova praksa nije bila neuobičajena čak ni među velemajstorima.[3] Međutim, 2005 FIDE je to zabranila, zahtijevajući umjesto toga da se potez mora odigrati prije no što se zapiše.[4][5] Šahovski savez SAD-a također je usvojio ovo pravilo, sa stupanjem na snagu od 1. januara 2007 (promjena pravila 15A)[6], iako se ono ne primjenjuje univerzalno.

Primjeri[uredi | uredi izvor]

U primjerima su prikazani grubi previdi iz poznatih partija svjetskih velemajstora.

Čigorin - Steinitz[uredi | uredi izvor]

Čigorin - Steinitz,
SP 1892[7]
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8 8
7 alt= black pawn alt= black pawn alt= white rook alt= black pawn 7
6 alt= white bishop alt= white knight alt= black king alt= black bishop 6
5 alt= white pawn alt= black pawn 5
4 alt= black pawn 4
3 3
2 alt= white pawn alt= white pawn alt= black rook alt= black rook alt= white pawn 2
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Pozicija nakon 31. poteza crnog



Ova pozicija je iz 23. partije Svjetskog prvenstva u šahu 1892. godine, održanog u Havani, na Kubi.[8] Čigorin nakon 31-og poteza ima materijalnu prednost od jednog skakača i jednog pješaka, a Steinitz je prinuđen na to da njegov lovac ostane na d6 te time istovremeno čuva topa na e7 i pješaka na h2. Ali nakon

31...Tcd2

Čigorin igra

32. Lb4??,

što se smatra jednom od najvećih grešaka na nekom svjetskom prvenstvu. Nakon toga Steinitz odgovara

32...Th2+,

nakon čega, zbog prijetnje matom nakon 33. Kg1 Tdg2#, Čigorin predaje.[7]

Petrosjan - Bronštejn[uredi | uredi izvor]

Petrosjan - Bronštejn,
Turnir kandidata 1956[9]
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8 alt= black rook alt= black bishop alt= black rook alt= black king 8
7 alt= black pawn alt= black knight alt= black queen 7
6 alt= black pawn alt= white queen alt= black pawn 6
5 alt= white pawn alt= white knight alt= black pawn alt= black knight alt= black pawn 5
4 alt= white pawn alt= white knight alt= white pawn 4
3 alt= white pawn 3
2 alt= white rook alt= white pawn alt= white bishop 2
1 alt= white rook alt= white king 1
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Pozicija nakon 35...Sf5


Partija između dvaju sovjetskih velemajstora, Petrosjana i Bronštejna, odigrana je na Turniru kandidata[10] za Svjetsko prvenstvo u šahu 1956. u Amsterdamu. Dijagram prikazuje poziciju nakon Bronštejnovog 35. poteza. Petrosjan kao bijeli u velikoj je prednosti jer osim topovske baterije na b-liniji ima aktivnu damu, skakače na središnjim poljima, te jakog bijelog lovca u fjanketo poziciji. Za razliku od bijelog, crni je zatvoren i nema mogućost odbrane te ponavljanjem poteza skakačem Sd4 i Sc6, pokušava naći rješenje, čekajući zapravo na rasplet napada bijelog. Nakon gotovo bespotrebnog poteza

35...Sf5

prijeti bijeloj dami na d6, koja se može premjestiti na još jači položaj potezom 36.Dc7, te pojačati pritisak na crnog, ali bijeli iznenađujuće igra

36.Sg5??,

na što crni odgovara

36...Sxd6,

čime gubi damu i predaje.[9]

Najdorf - Fischer[uredi | uredi izvor]

Najdorf - Fischer,
Pjatigorski kup 1966[11]
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8 alt= black rook alt= black knight alt= black queen alt= black king 8
7 alt= black bishop alt= black pawn alt= black bishop 7
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5 alt= white knight alt= black pawn alt= white pawn alt= white queen 5
4 alt= white pawn alt= black pawn alt= white knight alt= black pawn 4
3 alt= white bishop alt= white pawn 3
2 alt= white pawn alt= white pawn alt= white pawn 2
1 alt= white rook alt= white king 1
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Pozicija nakon 30...Sd6




Ova partija između Najdorfa i Fischera odigrana 1966. na međunarodnom turniru Pjatigorski kup u Santa Moniki u Kaliforniji primjer je partije u kojoj igrač puca pod pritiskom u lošoj poziciji. Prema Mednisu[12], Fischerova odlučujuća greška desila se još ranije u partiji, a ovdje crni pješak na f4 uskoro pada. Fischer je napravio grubi previd odigravši 30...Sd6??, skraćujući partiju. Nakon što je Najdorf odigrao 31.Sxd6 Fischer je predao jer je nakon Najdorfovog odgovora shvatio da poslije 31...Dxd6 32.Sxb7 Najdorf ostaje za figuru jači pošto je 32...Txb7 33.Dc8+ viljuška kojom bijeli uzima topa na b7, tako da zarađuje najmanje jednu lahku figuru.

Najdorf je komentirao na 29. potez crnog Tb8: "Nema zadovoljavajuće odbrane. Ako 29...La8, onda 30.Sb6 ili 30.Df5 dobijaju... Morao sam osvojiti manji materijal (pješaka na f5), ali ovo [30...Sd6?] rješava stvar trenutno. Fischer, demoraliziran svojom inferiornom pozicijom, nije primijetio ovu jednostavnu stvar."[13]

Korčnoj - Karpov[uredi | uredi izvor]

Korčnoj - Karpov,
SP 1978[14]
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4 alt= white pawn alt= black knight 4
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Bijeli treba odigrati svoj 39. potez

Ovo je pozicija iz 17. partije SP-a 1978. između Viktora Korčnoja, koji je bio izazivač, i svjetskog prvaka, Anatolija Karpova. Karpov, koji je crni, nada se da može matirati na posljednjem redu topom mogućim potezom 39...Tc1#. Međutim, Korčnoj je to mogao spriječiti pomjeranjem g-pješaka (ali ne h-pješaka pošto 39.h3 ili h4 vode do 39...Tc1+ 40.Kh2 Sf1+ 41.Kg1 Sfg3+ 42.Kh2 Th1#), osiguravajući kralju polje za bijeg. Korčnoj, međutim, nije primijetio Karpovljev matni plan sa skakačima te je odigrao 39.Ta1??. To je Karpovu omogućilo lijep završetak: 39...Sf3!+ i Korčnoj je predao. Inače bi ga Karpov matirao nakon 40.gxf3 Tg6+ 41.Kh1 Sf2# ili 40.Kh1 Sf2#. Karpov je na kraju dobio meč i kasnije je ponovo pobijedio Korčnoja 1981. u "Masakru u Meranu".[15][16]

Chandler - Zs. Polgar[uredi | uredi izvor]

Chandler - Zs. Polgar,
Šahovski turnir u Bielu 1987[14]
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Bijeli treba odigrati svoj 54. potez

In this example, from a tournament in Biel in 1987, the game would not result as a loss for the blunderer, but led to an embarrassing draw for the British GM Chandler. Susan Polgar has just played the wily trap 53...Ng8–h6!?, hoping to turn the game around. Chandler though, realizes that after 54.gxh6+ Kxh6 he will be left with the considerable material advantage of a rook pawn and bishop against a bare king. However, since the bishop is unable to control the promotion square h8, Black will draw if she is able to get her king to control h8 due to the wrong rook pawn fortress. But Chandler calculates further, and realizes that it is he who will win control over the h8 square after 55.Kf6, and thereby win the game.[17]

Therefore Chandler played 54.gxh6+??, but instead of the expected 54...Kxh6 came 54...Kh8! This is in fact almost the same king, bishop, and rook pawn versus bare king situation as Chandler had calculated that he would avoid, and the small difference that White has two rook pawns rather than one has no effect on the result. Black controls the h8 square and cannot be chased or squeezed away from it, and so White cannot promote his pawn. After 55.Bd5 Kh7 56.Kf7 Kh8 the players agreed to a draw.

Chandler had numerous moves which would have maintained his winning position, the fastest according to the Shredder tablebase[18] are 54.h4 and 54.Bf5.

Anand - Kasparov[uredi | uredi izvor]

Anand - Kasparov,
Šahovski turnir "Credit Suisse" 1996
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8 alt= black rook alt= black king alt= black rook 8
7 alt= black pawn alt= black pawn alt= black bishop 7
6 alt= black pawn alt= black pawn 6
5 alt= black knight alt= black pawn 5
4 alt= black queen alt= black pawn 4
3 alt= white pawn alt= white knight alt= white bishop alt= white pawn alt= black pawn 3
2 alt= white pawn alt= white pawn alt= white queen alt= white rook alt= white pawn 2
1 alt= white rook alt= white king 1
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Crni treba odigrati svoj 33. potez

Anand and Kasparov were competing in the final of the Credit Suisse Masters 1996. After a Sicilian Defence, Najdorf Variation opening, Kasparov, playing as Black, gradually built a positional advantage. At the point in the diagram, however, Kasparov made a major blunder with 33...Qxe3??, overlooking Anand's subsequent move 34.Qxg4! making a discovered attack on Kasparov's queen and forking his rook and bishop. Although Kasparov played on, giving up his queen, he ultimately resigned at move 54.[19]

Bjeljavski - Johannessen[uredi | uredi izvor]

Bjeljavski - Johannessen,
Šahovski turnir u Linaresu 2002[20]
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8 8
7 alt= black pawn alt= black king 7
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5 alt= black pawn alt= white pawn alt= white queen alt= black pawn 5
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3 alt= white pawn alt= white pawn alt= white king 3
2 2
1 alt= black queen 1
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Bijeli treba odigrati svoj 69. potez

This example, from a game played in Linares in 2002, is one of the very rare circumstances where a grandmaster makes the worst move possible, the only one allowing checkmate on the next move. In this queen endgame, White has some advantage after 69.fxg6+ fxg6 70.Kf4 due to Black's weak pawn on c6. However, Beliavsky playing White played 69.Kf4??, overlooking the response 69...Qb8#. According to Johannessen, it took a few moments for both players to realize that it was checkmate, and Beliavsky was a good sport over this mishap.[21]

Deep Fritz - Kramnik[uredi | uredi izvor]

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8 alt= white knight alt= black king 8
7 alt= black queen alt= black pawn 7
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2 alt= white pawn alt= white pawn alt= white pawn 2
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Crni treba odigrati svoj 34. potez

In November 2006, reigning World Chess Champion Vladimir Kramnik competed in the World Chess Challenge: Man - Machine, a six-game match against the chess computer Deep Fritz in Bonn, Germany. After the first game had ended in a draw, Kramnik, playing Black, was generally considered in a comfortable position in Game 2, and he thought so himself apparently, as he refused a draw by avoiding a potential threefold repetition on 29...Qa7. Kramnik's troubles began when he decided to play for a win and pushed his a-pawn, 31...a4. Commentators, including American grandmaster Yasser Seirawan, voiced concerns about Kramnik's intentions and the situation became more uncertain as the game went on with 32.Nxe6 Bxe3+ 33.Kh1 Bxc1 34.Nxf8, turning it into a likely draw.[22] The game could have ended with 34...Kg8 35.Ng6 Bxb2 36.Qd5+ Kh7 37.Nf8+ Kh8 38.Ng6+.

However Kramnik's next move, 34...Qe3?? (a move which was awarded "???" originally, by ChessBase on a story covering Kramnik's blunder), came as a big surprise and was described as the possible "blunder of the century" by Susan Polgar, as Kramnik—incredibly—overlooked a mate in one.[23] Deep Fritz immediately ended the game with 35.Qh7#, checkmate. Seirawan later called Kramnik's move "a tragedy".

ChessBase described the events as follows, "Kramnik played the move 34...Qe3 calmly, stood up, picked up his cup and was about to leave the stage to go to his rest room. At least one audio commentator also noticed nothing, while Fritz operator Mathias Feist kept glancing from the board to the screen and back, hardly able to believe that he had input the correct move. Fritz was displaying mate in one, and when Mathias executed it on the board Kramnik briefly grasped his forehead, took a seat to sign the score sheet and left for the press conference, which he dutifully attended."[24] during which he stated that he had planned the supposedly winning move 34...Qe3 already when playing 29...Qa7, and had rechecked the line after each subsequent move. After an exchange of queens Black would win easily with his distant pawn; after 35.Qxb4 Qe2 or 35.Ng6+ Kh7 36.Nf8+ Kg8 Black also wins eventually.

Chess journalist Alexander Roshal attempted to explain the blunder by saying that the mating pattern of a queen on h7 protected by a knight on f8 is extremely rare and not contained in a grandmaster's automatic repertoire.[25]

Bacrot - Inarkijev[uredi | uredi izvor]

Bacrot - Inarkijev,
Grand Prix 2008-2010[26]
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8 alt= black rook alt= black knight alt= black rook 8
7 alt= black pawn alt= black king 7
6 alt= black pawn alt= black pawn alt= black pawn alt= black pawn 6
5 alt= black queen alt= black pawn 5
4 alt= white pawn 4
3 alt= white knight alt= white pawn 3
2 alt= white pawn alt= white pawn alt= white pawn alt= white queen alt= white pawn alt= white pawn 2
1 alt= white rook alt= white bishop alt= white king 1
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Bijeli treba odigrati svoj 23. potez

This game was played in May 2008 at the Baku Grand Prix from the FIDE Grand Prix 2008-2010. In round 11, Étienne Bacrot played White against Ernesto Inarkijev. On move 23, he checked the Black king with 23. Qe7+??. Both players calmly wrote down the move. Bacrot then realized that his Queen was under attack by the Black knight, and resigned.[27]

Carlsen - Aronian[uredi | uredi izvor]

Carlsen - Aronian,
Grand Slam Masters 2012[28]
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8 alt= black rook alt= black king 8
7 alt= black pawn alt= black pawn 7
6 alt= black pawn alt= black pawn alt= black knight 6
5 alt= black pawn alt= black pawn 5
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3 alt= white pawn alt= white bishop alt= black rook alt= white pawn alt= black queen 3
2 alt= white pawn alt= white pawn alt= white pawn 2
1 alt= white rook alt= white queen alt= white rook alt= white king 1
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Bijeli treba odigrati svoj 27. potez

The game between the World's two highest-rated players in the 2012 Grand Slam Master's final in Sao Paulo and Bilbao (this game was played in Sao Paulo) featured a double blunder. Carlsen, with White, played the tactical blunder 27.Bf4??, and saw almost immediately that this loses to 27...R8xf4!, in effect winning a piece since taking the rook gives Black a forced mate: 28.gxf4 Nxf4 29.Rg1 Qxh2+ 30.Kxh2 Rh3#.

Carlsen waited for Aronian to make his move, and Aronian eventually played the otherwise solid 27...Bc3??, allowing White back into the game. Aronian had seen 27...R8xf4, but playing quickly to avoid time trouble, he thought that White could strike back with 28.gxf4 Nxf4 29.Ra8+ since both 29...Kf7 and 29...Kh7 lose to the knight fork 30.Ng5+, and had missed that the retreat 29...Bf8! ends White's brief counterattack and leaves White defenseless to the mate threat.[29]

The game was eventually drawn by perpetual check on move 48.

Također pogledajte[uredi | uredi izvor]

Chess.svg Portal o šahu
Odjeljak isključivo posvećen šahu

Reference[uredi | uredi izvor]

  1. ^ "Kad ste završili s analiziranjem svih varijanti i popeli se na svaku granu stabla analize, morate prije svega zapisati Vaš potez u zapisnik partije prije no što ga odigrate." Aleksandar Kotov, "Think Like a Grandmaster", Chess Digest, 1971, str. 73–74.
  2. ^ Simon Webb, Chess for Tigers (3. izdanje, 2005), str. 121–122.
  3. ^ Webb je o ovoj praki napisao: "Vidjeli ste druge igrače kako to rade". (Webb 2005, str. 121.)
  4. ^ FIDE Laws of Chess; v. član 8.1 o zapisivanju poteza
  5. ^ Urednici izdanja Chess for Tigers primijetili su da je nakon što im je Webb poslao svoj rad, "FIDE... donijela nova pravila koja igraču zabranjuju da unaprijed zapiše poteze, insistirajući također da igračev zapisnik partije bude vidljiv sudiji tokom cijele partije". (Webb 2005, str. 6.)
  6. ^ Šahovski savez SAD-a
  7. ^ a b Chess tile rd.svg Prikaz partije Čigorin-Steinitz, SP u šahu 1892. na Chessgames.com (en)
  8. ^ Chess tile rd.svg Partije i rezultati turnira Svjetsko prvenstvo u šahu 1892. na Chessgames.com (en)
  9. ^ a b Chess tile rd.svg Prikaz partije Petrosjan-Bronštejn, Turnir kandidata 1956. na Chessgames.com (en)
  10. ^ Chess tile rd.svg Partije i rezultati turnira Turnir kandidata 1956. na Chessgames.com (en)
  11. ^ Chess tile rd.svg Prikaz partije Najdorf-Fischer, Pjatigorski kup, Santa Monica 1966. na Chessgames.com (en)
  12. ^ Mednis, Edmar. How to beat Bobby Fischer.
  13. ^ Kashdan, Isaac, ed. (1968), Second Piatigorsky Cup, Dover (reprint 1977), str. 93, ISBN 0-486-23572-6 
  14. ^ a b Chess tile rd.svg Prikaz partije Korčnoj-Karpov, Svjetsko prvenstvo u šahu 1978. na Chessgames.com (en)
  15. ^ Daniel King's Chess: From first move to checkmate
  16. ^ Chess tile rd.svg Prikaz partije tekst=Karpov-Korčnoj 1981 (sve partije ovog meča) na Chessgames.com (en)
  17. ^ Andrew Soltis, Chess to Enjoy in September 1997 Chess Life
  18. ^ Endgame Database
  19. ^ Viswanathan Anand vs Garry Kasparov (1996).
  20. ^ Chess tile rd.svg Prikaz partije Bjeljavski-Johannessen, Linares, 2002. na Chessgames.com (en)
  21. ^ Find the Losing Move.
  22. ^ Late game blunder costs Kramnik in loss to Deep Fritz chess software
  23. ^ Blunder of the century, blog by Susan Polgar, 27 November 2006
  24. ^ Man vs machine shocker: Kramnik allows mate in one
  25. ^ How could Kramnik overlook the mate?, ChessBase News, 29 November 2006
  26. ^ Chess tile rd.svg Prikaz partije Bacrot-Inarkijev, FIDE Grand Prix 2008-2010. na Chessgames.com (en)
  27. ^ Baku R11: Wang Yue beats Svidler to join Grischuk, ChessBase News, 3 May 2008
  28. ^ Chess tile rd.svg Prikaz partije Carlsen-Aronian, Grand Slam Masters, 2012. na Chessgames.com (en)
  29. ^ Caruana extends lead even further in Sao Paulo.