Lophotrochozoa

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Lophotrochozoa
(Kladus Protostomia, u Spiralia)
Karipska Sepioteuthis sepioidea, kompleksna lofotrohozoa
Karipska Sepioteuthis sepioidea, kompleksna lofotrohozoa
Sistematika

Lophotrochozoa ("grebenastokoturaste životinje") su kladus Protostomia unutar Spiralia. Takson je uspostavljen kao monofiletska grupa, zasnovana na molekularnim dokazima.[1][2]

Grupe[uredi | uredi izvor]

Kao bazne grupe, Lophotrochozoa ima Cycliophora i Mollusca i izvedenije grupe Lophophorate, Nemertea i Annelida .[3][4]

Uvođenjem Platytrochozoa i Rouphozoa, dolje je prikazana jedna kandidatska filogenija – iako druge studije oporavljaju niz alternativnih mogućnosti::[5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12]

Protostomia

Ecdysozoa

Spiralia

Gnathifera

Platytrochozoa
Rouphozoa

Gastrotricha

Platyhelminthes

Mesozoa

Lophotrochozoa

Cycliophora

Annelida

Echiura

Clitellata

Siboglinidae

Sipuncula

Mollusca

Kryptotrochozoa
Lophophorata
Brachiozoa

Brachiopoda

Phoronida

Bryozoa sensu lato

Entoprocta

Ectoprocta

Nemertea

Odnosno
Nephrozoa

Deuterostomia

Protostomia
Lophotrochozoa

Brachiopoda

Phoronida

Mollusca

Annelida

Echiura

Clitellata

Siboglinidae

Sipuncula

Nemertea

Platyhelminthes [?]

Entoprocta

Ectoprocta

Platyhelminthes [?]

Acanthocephala

Rotifera

Gnathostomulida

Gastrotricha

Ecdysozoa

Brojni fosilni taksoni mogu se prepoznati kao rani lofotrohozoa, čak i ako se njihove precizne veze i dalje osporavaju. Međutim, relevantni kambrijski fosili su u toku rasprave.

Obilježja[uredi | uredi izvor]

Kladus Lophotrochozoa je imenovan po dvije različite karakteristike svojih članova;

Također pogledajte[uredi | uredi izvor]

Reference[uredi | uredi izvor]

  1. ^ Halanych, K.M., Bacheller, J., Liva, S., Aguinaldo, A. A., Hillis, D.M. and Lake, J.A. (17. 3. 1995). "18S rDNA evidence that the Lophophorates are Protostome Animals". Science. 267 (5204): 1641–1643. doi:10.1126/science.7886451. PMID 7886451.CS1 održavanje: više imena: authors list (link)
  2. ^ Hervé, Philippe; Lartillot, Nicolas; Brinkmann, Henner (maj 2005). "Multigene Analyses of Bilaterian Animals Corroborate the Monophyly of Ecdysozoa, Lophotrochozoa, and Protostomia". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 22 (5): 1246–1253. doi:10.1093/molbev/msi111. PMID 15703236.
  3. ^ Nesnidal, Maximilian P; Helmkampf, Martin; Meyer, Achim; Witek, Alexander; Bruchhaus, Iris; Ebersberger, Ingo; Hankeln, Thomas; Lieb, Bernhard; Struck, Torsten H; Hausdorf, Bernhard (2013). "New phylogenomic data support the monophyly of Lophophorata and an Ectoproct-Phoronid clade and indicate that Polyzoa and Kryptrochozoa are caused by systematic bias". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 13 (1): 253. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-13-253. PMC 4225663. PMID 24238092.
  4. ^ Laumer, Christopher E.; Bekkouche, Nicolas; Kerbl, Alexandra; Goetz, Freya; Neves, Ricardo C.; Sørensen, Martin V.; Kristensen, Reinhardt M.; Hejnol, Andreas; Dunn, Casey W.; Giribet, Gonzalo; Worsaae, Katrine (august 2015). "Spiralian Phylogeny Informs the Evolution of Microscopic Lineages". Current Biology. 25 (15): 2000–2006. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2015.06.068. PMID 26212884.
  5. ^ Paps, Jordi; Baguñà, Jaum; Riutort, Marta (1. 10. 2009). "Bilaterian Phylogeny: A Broad Sampling of 13 Nuclear Genes Provides a New Lophotrochozoa Phylogeny and Supports a Paraphyletic Basal Acoelomorpha". Molecular Biology and Evolutio. 26 (10): 2397–2406. doi:10.1093/molbev/msp150. PMID 19602542.
  6. ^ Struck, Torsten H; Schult, Nancy; Kusen, Tiffany; Hickman, Emily; Bleidorn, Christoph; McHugh, Damhnait; Halanych, Kenneth M (5. 4. 2007). "Annelid phylogeny and the status of Sipuncula and Echiura". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 7 (1): 57. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-7-57. PMC 1855331. PMID 17411434.
  7. ^ Hausdorf, Bernhard; Helmkampf, Martin; Meyer, Achim; Witek, Alexander; Herlyn, Holger; Bruchhaus, Iris; Hankeln, Thomas; Struck, Torsten H.; Lieb, Bernhard (1. 12. 2007). "Spiralian Phylogenomics Supports the Resurrection of Bryozoa Comprising Ectoprocta and Entoprocta". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 24 (12): 2723–2729. doi:10.1093/molbev/msm214. PMID 17921486.
  8. ^ Struck, Torsten H.; Wey-Fabrizius, Alexandra R.; Golombek, Anja; Hering, Lars; Weigert, Anne; Bleidorn, Christoph; Klebow, Sabrina; Iakovenko, Nataliia; Hausdorf, Bernhard; Petersen, Malte; Kück, Patrick; Herlyn, Holger; Hankeln, Thomas (juli 2014). "Platyzoan Paraphyly Based on Phylogenomic Data Supports a Noncoelomate Ancestry of Spiralia". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 31 (7): 1833–1849. doi:10.1093/molbev/msu143. PMID 24748651.
  9. ^ "cycliophorans". Encyclopedia of Life.
  10. ^ Lu, Tsai-Ming; Kanda, Miyuki; Satoh, Noriyuki; Furuya, Hidetaka (29. 5. 2017). "The phylogenetic position of dicyemid mesozoans offers insights into spiralian evolution". Zoological Letters. 3 (1): 6. doi:10.1186/s40851-017-0068-5. PMC 5447306. PMID 28560048.
  11. ^ Temereva, Elena N.; Kuzmina, Tatyana V. (31. 7. 2017). "The first data on the innervation of the lophophore in the rhynchonelliform brachiopod Hemithiris psittacea: what is the ground pattern of the lophophore in lophophorates?". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 17 (1): 172. doi:10.1186/s12862-017-1029-5. PMC 5537927. PMID 28760135.
  12. ^ Luo, Yi-Jyun; Kanda, Miyuki; Koyanagi, Ryo; Hisata, Kanako; Akiyama, Tadashi; Sakamoto, Hirotaka; Sakamoto, Tatsuya; Satoh, Noriyuki (4. 12. 2017). "Nemertean and phoronid genomes reveal lophotrochozoan evolution and the origin of bilaterian heads". Nature Ecology & Evolution. 2 (1): 141–151. doi:10.1038/s41559-017-0389-y. PMID 29203924.
  13. ^ Barnes, Robert D (1982). Invertebrate Zoology. str. 200–206. ISBN 978-0-03-056747-6. OCLC 1015202568.
  14. ^ Reece, Jane B.; Urry, Lisa A.; Cain, Michael L. (2013). Campbell Biology. Berkeley, CA: Pearson. str. 688. ISBN 978-0-321-77565-8.

Dopunska literatura[uredi | uredi izvor]

Vanjski linkovi[uredi | uredi izvor]