Naučni rasizam

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Naučni rasizam, koji se ponekad naziva i biološki rasizam, je pseudonaučno uvjerenje da postoje empirijski dokazi koji podržavaju ili opravdavaju rasizam (rasna diskriminacija), rasnu inferiornost ili rasnu superiornost.[1] [2] [3] [4] Historijski gledano, naučni rasizam je dobio povjerenje u cijeloj naučnoj zajednici, ali se više ne smatra naučno utemeljenim.[2] [3] Podjelu čovječanstva na biološki različite grupe njegovi zagovornici ponekad nazivaju rasizam, rasni realizam ili rasna nauka. Savremeni naučni konsenzus odbacuje ovo gledište kao nepomirljivo sa modernim genetskim istraživanjima.[5] :360

Naučni rasizam koristi antropologiju (posebno fizičku antropologiju), antropometriju, kraniometriju i druge discipline ili pseudodiscipline, u predlaganju antropoloških tipologija koje podržavaju klasifikaciju ljudskih populacija u fizički diskretne ljudske rase, od kojih bi se neke mogle smatrati superiornijim ili inferionijim od drugi. Naučni rasizam je bio uobičajen u periodu od 1600-ih do kraja Drugog svjetskog rata. Od druge polovine 20. veka naučni rasizam je kritikovan kao zastario i diskreditovan, ali je uporno korišten za podršku ili potvrđivanje rasističkih pogleda na svijet, zasnovanih na vjerovanju u postojanje i značaj rasnih kategorija i hijerarhije superiornih i inferiorne rase.[6]

Nakon završetka Drugog svjetskog rata, naučni rasizam u teoriji i djelovanju formalno je osuđen, posebno u UNESCO -ovoj ranoj antirasističkoj izjavi „Pitanje rase“ (1950.): „Biološka činjenica o rasi i mit o 'rasi' bi trebali biti istaknuti. Za sve praktične društvene svrhe 'rasa' nije toliko biološki fenomen koliko društveni mit. Mit o 'rasi' stvorio je ogromnu količinu ljudske i društvene štete. Posljednjih godina uzela je veliki danak u ljudskim životima i izazvala neopisivu patnju."[7] Od tog vremena, razvoj ljudske evolucijske genetike i fizičke antropologije doveo je do novog konsenzusa među antropolozima da je ljudska rasa sociopolitički fenomen, a ne biološki.[8] [9] :294[10] [11]

Termin naučni rasizam općenito se koristi pežorativno kada se primjenjuje na modernije teorije, poput onih u The Bell Curve (1994). Kritičari tvrde da takvi radovi postuliraju rasističke zaključke, kao što je genetska veza između rase i inteligencije, koji nisu potkrijepljeni dostupnim dokazima. [12] Publikacije kao što je Mankind Quarterly, osnovan izričito kao časopis koji je "svjestan rase", općenito se smatraju platformama naučnog rasizma jer objavljuju rubna tumačenja ljudske evolucije, inteligencije, etnografije, jezika, mitologije, arheologije i rase.

Arthur Schopenhauer

Njemački filozof Arthur Schopenhauer (1788–1860) pripisao je civilizacijski primat bijelim rasama, koje su stekle osjetljivost i inteligenciju kroz prefinjenost uzrokovanu životom u strogoj sjevernoj klimi: [13]

Nacistički poster koji promovira eugeniku

Reference[uredi | uredi izvor]

 

  1. ^ "Ostensibly scientific": cf. Theodore M. Porter, Dorothy Ross (eds.) 2003. The Cambridge History of Science: Volume 7, The Modern Social Sciences Cambridge University Press, p. 293 "Race has long played a powerful popular role in explaining social and cultural traits, often in ostensibly scientific terms"; Adam Kuper, Jessica Kuper (eds.), The Social Science Encyclopedia (1996), "Racism", p. 716: "This [sc. scientific] racism entailed the use of 'scientific techniques', to sanction the belief in European and American racial Superiority"; Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Questions to Sociobiology (1998), "Race, theories of", p. 18: "Its exponents [sc. of scientific racism] tended to equate race with species and claimed that it constituted a scientific explanation of human history"; Terry Jay Ellingson, The myth of the noble savage (2001), 147ff. "In scientific racism, the racism was never very scientific; nor, it could at least be argued, was whatever met the qualifications of actual science ever very racist" (p. 151); Paul A. Erickson, Liam D. Murphy, A History of Anthropological Theory (2008), p. 152: "Scientific racism: Improper or incorrect science that actively or passively supports racism".
  2. ^ a b Gould 1981. "Few tragedies can be more extensive than the stunting of life, few injustices deeper than the denial of an opportunity to strive or even to hope, by a limit imposed from without, but falsely identified as lying within."
  3. ^ a b Kurtz, Paul (September 2004). "Can the Sciences Help Us to Make Wise Ethical Judgments?". Skeptical Inquirer. Arhivirano s originala, November 23, 2007. Pristupljeno December 1, 2007. There have been abundant illustrations of pseudoscientific theories-monocausal theories of human behavior that were hailed as "scientific"-that have been applied with disastrous results. Examples: ... Many racists today point to IQ to justify a menial role for blacks in society and their opposition to affirmative action.
  4. ^ Kaldis, Byron, ured. (2013). Encyclopedia of Philosophy and the Social Sciences. SAGE Publications. str. 779. ISBN 9781452276045.Prazna referenca (pomoć)
  5. ^ Templeton, A. (2016). EVOLUTION AND NOTIONS OF HUMAN RACE. In Losos J. & Lenski R. (Eds.), How Evolution Shapes Our Lives: Essays on Biology and Society (pp. 346–361). Princeton; Oxford: Princeton University Press. doi:10.2307/j.ctv7h0s6j.26. That this view reflects the consensus among American anthropologists is stated in: Wagner, Jennifer K.; Yu, Joon-Ho; Ifekwunigwe, Jayne O.; Harrell, Tanya M.; Bamshad, Michael J.; Royal, Charmaine D. (February 2017). "Anthropologists' views on race, ancestry, and genetics". American Journal of Physical Anthropology. 162 (2): 318–327. doi:10.1002/ajpa.23120. PMC 5299519. PMID 27874171. See also: American Association of Physical Anthropologists (March 27, 2019). "AAPA Statement on Race and Racism". American Association of Physical Anthropologists. Pristupljeno June 19, 2020.
  6. ^ Cf. Patricia Hill Collins, Black feminist thought: knowledge, consciousness, and the politics of empowerment (2nd ed., 2000), Glossary, p. 300: "Scientific racism was designed to prove the inferiority of people of color"; Simon During, Cultural studies: a critical introduction (2005), p. 163: "It [sc. scientific racism] became such a powerful idea because ... it helped legitimate the domination of the globe by whites"; David Brown and Clive Webb, Race in the American South: From Slavery to Civil Rights (2007), p. 75: "...the idea of a hierarchy of races was driven by an influential, secular, scientific discourse in the second half of the eighteenth century and was rapidly disseminated during the nineteenth century".
  7. ^ UNESCO, The Race Question, p. 8
  8. ^ Gannon, Megan (February 5, 2016). "Race Is a Social Construct, Scientists Argue". Scientific American (jezik: engleski). Pristupljeno December 25, 2018.
  9. ^ Daley, C. E.; Onwuegbuzie, A. J. (2011). "Race and Intelligence". u Sternberg, R.; Kaufman, S. B. (ured.). The Cambridge Handbook of Intelligence. Cambridge New York: Cambridge University Press. str. 293–306. ISBN 9780521518062.
  10. ^ Diana Smay, George Armelagos (2000). "Galileo wept: A critical assessment of the use of race in forensic anthropolopy" (PDF). Transforming Anthropology. 9 (2): 22–24. doi:10.1525/tran.2000.9.2.19. Pristupljeno July 13, 2016.
  11. ^ Rotimi, Charles N. (2004). "Are medical and nonmedical uses of large-scale genomic markers conflating genetics and 'race'?". Nature Genetics. 36 (11 Suppl): 43–47. doi:10.1038/ng1439. PMID 15508002. Two facts are relevant: (i) as a result of different evolutionary forces, including natural selection, there are geographical patterns of genetic variations that correspond, for the most part, to continental origin; and (ii) observed patterns of geographical differences in genetic information do not correspond to our notion of social identities, including 'race' and 'ethnicity
  12. ^ Tucker 2007
  13. ^ Schopenhauer, Parerga and Paralipomena: Short Philosophical Essays, Volume II, Section 92