Flavije Aecije: razlika između verzija

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([[Latinski jezik|latinski]]: ''Flavius Aetius''), vojskovođa Zapadnorimskog carstva. Rođen negdje između [[390]] i [[396]], umro (ubijen kao žrtva intriga) [[454]]. Najveći rimski vojskovođa zadnjeg poglavlja velikog [[Rimsko Carstvo|carstva]]. Za maloljetnosti [[Popis Rimskih careva|cara]] [[Valentinijan III|Valentinijana III]], od [[425]], vrhovni zapovjednik vojske. Dvije dekade je ''de facto'' upravljao državom. Rimski historičari tih vremena nazivali su ga ''posljednjim pravim Rimljaninom''.
Njegova pobjeda nad Atilom, garantira mu, kako Edward Gibbon kaže, besmrtnost dokle god se ljudi sjećaju Rima.
 
==Rane godine==
Flavijus je rođen u [[Silistra|Silistri]] ''(rimljanski naziv: Dorostorum)'' u [[Moesia|Moesiji]], krajem [[4. vijek|4. vijeka]].
Bio je sin [[Italija|italijanske]] majke Auraelije i [[Gaudentius]]a, koji je po mnogim historičarima bio vjerovatno [[Germani|germanskog]] porijekla. Dospio je do titule konjičnog upravnika u Zapadnom carstvu, a poslije i [[Afrika|Afričkog]] barona. Flavijus je bio nekoliko godina taoc, prvo kod Alari ka I i [[Goti|Gota]], a poslije kod hunskog kralja, [[Rugila]]. Na taj način je došao do znanja o njima, koje mu je pomoglo da ih kasnije savlada.
 
==Aecijus, Bonifacijus i Placidija==
[[425]]. godine Aecijus je poveo vojsku od 60000 Huna u Italiju. Krenuo je kako bi potpomogao Joannesa, koji je proglasio samog sebe za novog cara. Ipak, on je došao u [[Ravenna|Ravenu]] tri dana nakon Joannesovog poraza i smaknuća. Sa svojom ogromnom vojskom Huna, Aecijus je dobio dopuštenje da preuzme poziciju ''[[Magister militum]] per Gallias'' (ili Vođa galskih vojnika) od [[Galla Placidia]], carske majke i namjesnice [[Valentinian III|Valentiniana III]].
 
U Galiji je Aecijus pobjedio [[Vizigoti|Vizigote]] kod [[Arles]]a, prisiljavajući ih da se vrate u [[Aquitaine|Akvitaniju]]. Onda je nastavio da pojača [[Rajna|rajnsku ]] granicu i odbrani [[Noricum]] od germanskih napada. U isto vrijeme je [[Bonifacijus]] u Africi pao pod nemilost Placidije, možda djelimično zbog intriga sa Aecijusom i drugim rimljanskim generalima.
 
Bonifacijus je poslije dobio blagonaklonost Placidije, tek nakon revolta u Africi. [[432]]. je Bonifacijus vraćen u [[Italija|Italiju]] i dat mu je rang [[patricije|patricija]]. Aecijus je vjerujući da ga se Placidija želi riješiti, marširao do Bonifacijusa i borio se sa njegovom vojskom kod [[Rimini]]ja. Bonifacijus je taktički dobio borbu, ali je bio smrtno ranjen i umro je nekoliko mjeseci kasnije. Aecijus je pobjegao u [[Dalmacija|Dalmaciju]] i uz pomoć Huna (za koju su dobili teritorije [[Panonija|Panonije]), je došao na vlast [[433]]. godine.
 
==Uticaj==
Od [[433]] do [[450]], Aecijus je bio dominantna ličnost Zapadnog carstva. Nastavio je davati svoju pažnju Galiji nakon ponovnog dolaska na vlast. [[436]]. su [[Burgundija|Burgundinci]] pokušali osvojiti nove teritorije, ali je Aecijus pozvao Hune da intervenišu, i 20000 Burgundijaca je tada poginulo. Ovaj masakr je bio osnova za [[Nibelungenlied]], njemačkoj [[ep|epskom djelu]]. [[443]]. je Aecijus naselio preostale Burgundijce u [[Savoj]], južno od [[Ženevsko jezero|Ženevskog jezera]]. 440-tih se uglavnom bavio problemima u Galiji i Španiji.
 
Velija vojska Huna na čelu sa [[Atila|Atilom]] je [[451]]. izvršila invaziju na Galiju i zarobila više gradova, a onda nastavila prema [[Orleans]]u. Kada je Alans odlučio da stane na stranu Huna, Aecijus i vizigotski kralj Theodoric su krenuli da oslobode grad. Huni su prestali s opsadom grada i povukli se. [[20. septembar|20. septembra]] [[451]]. (neki izvori tvrde [[20. juni]]) Huni su se borili protiv Rimljana i Vizigota, na Katalonskom polju, blizu [[Chalons]]a. Iako je bitka završila neriješeno,bio je to veliki Aecijusov i rimljanski trijumf. Atila je bio primoran da se povuče iza [[Rajna|Rajne]] i nikada više nije ugrožavao Galiju.
 
==Atentat==
Although in 453 Aëtius had been able to betroth his son Gaudentius to Valentinian's daughter Placidia, Valentinian felt intimidated by Aetius, who had once supported Joannes against him and whom Valentinian believed wanted to place his son upon the imperial throne. The Roman senator [[Petronius Maximus]] and the chamberlain Heraclius were therefore able to enlist Valentinian in a plot to assassinate Aëtius. On [[September 21]], [[454]], when at court in [[Ravenna]] delivering a financial account, Aëtius was slain by Valentinian's own hand. [[Edward Gibbon]] credits [[Sidonius Apollinaris]] with the famous observation, "I am ignorant, sir, of your motives or provocations; I only know that you have acted like a man who has cut off his right hand with his left" (''Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire'', ch. 35).
 
Maximus expected to be made patrician in place of Aëtius, but was blocked by Heraclius. Seeking revenge, Maximus arranged with two Hun friends of Aëtius, Optila and Thraustila, to assassinate both Valentinian III and Heraclius. On [[March 16]], [[455]], Optila stabbed the emperor in the temple as he dismounted in the Campus Martius and prepared for a session of archery practice. As the stunned emperor turned to see who had struck him, Optila finished him off with another thrust of his blade. Meanwhile, Thraustila stepped forward and killed Heraclius. Most of the soldiers standing close by had been faithful followers of Aetius and none lifted a hand to save the emperor.
 
==After death==
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His final legacy has been similar to that of [[Stilicho]]. Both were the best Roman generals of their time, and both were killed by jealous emperors. Aëtius was a brilliant general but failed to look at how the map of Rome would stand later on. At the time of his death, not one province of Rome in western Europe was without a significant barbarian presence. After his victories he allowed the barbarians to stay inside the Empire's borders in exchange for peace, and their military service. He is also alleged to have failed to continue to develop Rome's navies, a significant problem for later emperors. That blindness, if true, was his greatest mistake. Simply put, he is alleged not to have seen the danger of Africa in barbarian hands. In that he would have been the only significant figure to have not foreseen that danger. Africa was the breadbasket of the Empire, and the source of most of the wealth remaining to the Western Empire. [[Edward Gibbon| Gibbon]] however is more kind to Aëtius, and believes his preoccupation with the Huns, more than not caring, limited his attention to the navy, and the subsequent loss of Africa. Emperors [[Majorian]], [[Leo I (emperor)|Leo I]] and [[Anthemius]] saw the necessity of Africa liberation. Even Visigoth puppet Roman emperor [[Attalus (emperor)| Attalus]] after sacks of Rome in 410 refused to give ships to barbarians for transport to Africa. Many historians feel Aëtius nominally preserved the peace and order, (in addition to his macrohistorical victory over Attila), but his reactionary stances left Rome ripe for its fall. It should be noted however that again, Gibbon, among others, disputes this. One fact however cannot be disputed. Even Gibbon agrees the reliance on barbarian troops was the primary reason for the ultimate fall of the Western Empire, and Aëtius certainly relied on them, to the detriment of the Empire when he was gone.
 
[[J. B. Bury]]'s assessment, however, was that the battle of Chalôns was fundamentally unimportant. Aëtius attacked the Huns when they were already retreating from [[Orleans]], so Gaul was not in immediate danger; and he declined to renew the attack, the next day, to preserve the balance of power. The important battle was three years later, when the Germans rose up against the Huns after Attila's death, and defeated them at the [[Nedao]], in [[454]]. This decided that there would be no Hunnic Empire, which Bury thinks would have been unlikely even they had crushed the Germans ''that'' time. In this light, Chalôns determined chiefly whether Attila spent his last year looting Gaul or Italy.
 
[[category:Vojskovođe]]
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