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'''[[Šah (višeznačni čvor)]]''' ([[farsi jezik|farsi]], شاه, ''šahšāh'', "vladar, kralj").
Its main use is as an imprecise rendering of Shahanshah (meaning King of Kings), usually shortened to Shah (in Persian: شاه), from the Old Persian or Indo-European word khshathra-pava ("king"), and popularly referred to as "basileus toon basileoon" by the Greeks, is the term for a Persian monarch and was used by most of the former rulers of the empires corresponding roughly to Persia since the Achaemenid Persian Empire.
The title is roughly equivalent to a Western Emperor and is hence often translates as in English and its equivalent in other languages. The monarch of Persia was technically the Emperor of the Persian Empire (later the Empire of Iran, as Iran was officially known until 1935).
The last Shah of Iran, Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi officially adopted the title شاهنشاه Shâhanshâh ("Emperor", literally "King of Kings") during his coronation. He also styled his wife شاهبانو Shahbânu ("Empress").
Related and subsidiary princely titles
Ruler styles
The Shâhanshâh's title Padishah 'Great King' (see both articles) was also adopted from Iranians (Persians) by the Ottomans (the 'Great Sultan' was the Sunni counterpart of the Shiah Shahanshah) for their Emperor, and by various other Islamic Monarchs claiming imperial rank, such as the Indian Mughal (among them only the Ottomans would also claim the caliphate, full sovereign authority over universal (or at least Sunni) Islam, like the prophet).
The Turkish title Hünkar is a contraction of the Middle Persian Khudavendigar, originally an epithet of semi-divine status. It must have been highly respected not to be swept away by Islam before the Ottomans could adopt it as a subsidiary title for their Great Sultan (directly after Padishah)
Some monarchs were known by a contraction of the kingdom's name with Shah, such as Choresmshah