Transport

Sa Wikipedije, slobodne enciklopedije
Idi na: navigacija, traži
Bih-usa.svg Ovaj članak nije preveden ili je djelimično preveden.
Ako smatrate da ste sposobni da ga prevedete, kliknite na link uredi i prevedite ga vodeći računa o enciklopedijskom stilu pisanja i pravopisu bosanskog jezika.
Ambox warning blue construction.svg Trenutno se vrše izmjene na članku.
Kao znak dobre volje, suzdržite se od mijenjanja članka dok je prikazano obavještenje kako bi se izbjegla kolizija s trenutnim izmjenama.
Kontejnerski brod BW Fjord
Francuska nacionalna policija koristi nekoliko načina transporta, svaki od njih ima svoje prednosti.

Transport ili transportacija predstavlja kretanje ljudi, životinja ili dobara sa jednog mjesta na drugo. Mediji transporta uključuju zrak, željeznicu, cestu, vodu, kablove, cjevovode i svemir. Polje može biti podijeljeno u infrastrukturu, vozila i operacije. Transport je važan jer omogućava trgovinu između ljudi, što je osnova za razvoj civilizacija.

Transportna infrastruktura se sastoji od određenog broja instalacija što uključuje ceste, željeznice, zračne linije, vodene linije, kanale i cjevovode, kao i terminale kao što su aerodromi, vozne stanice, autobuske stanice, skladišta, prevoznički terminali, skladišta za punjenja goriva (uključujući pristaništa i gasne stanice) i morske luke. Terminali mogu biti korišteni za interchange of passengers and cargo i za održavanje.

Vozila koja putuju na ovim mrežama mogu uključivati automobile, bicikle, autobuse, vozove, kamione, ljude, helikoptere, plovne objekte, svemirske letjelice i avijaciju. Operacije se bave načinom na koji se upravlja vozilima i procedurama propisanim za tu svrhu, uključujući finansiranje, zakonitost i politiku. U transportnoj industriji, operacije i vlasništvo infrastrukture mogu biti javni ili privatni, zavisno od države i načina.

Putnički transport može biti javni, gdje operatori omogućavaju servise po rasporedu, ili privatni. Teretni transport je postao fokusiran na kontejnerizaciju, iako se transport rasutih materijala koristi za velike količine trajnih predmeta. Transport igra važnu ulogu u ekonomskom rastu i globalizaciji, ali većina tipova uzrokuje zagađenje zraka i zauzima velike zemljine površine. Iako je u velikoj mjeri uz subvenciju vlade, dobro planiranje transporta je osnova za pravljenje toka saobraćaja i smanjenja gužvi.

Način transporta[uredi | uredi izvor]

Glavna stranica: Način transporta

Način transporta je rješenje koje upotrebljava određeni tip vozila, infrastrukture i operacije. Transport osoba ili tereta može uključivati jedan ili nekoliko načina, s tim što se ovaj drugi slučaj zove intermodalni ili multimodalni transport. Svaki način ima svoje prednosti i mahane, te se bira za upotrebu zavisno od troška, mogućnosti i rute.

Ljudi[uredi | uredi izvor]

Transport ljudskom snagom ostaje u stalnoj upotrebi u državama u razvoju.

Transport ljudskom snagom, oblik održivog transporta, jeste transport ljudi i/ili dobara korištenjem ljudske snage mišića, u obliku hodanja, trčanja i plivanja. Moderna tehnologija dopušta mašinama upotrebu ljudske snage. Transport ljudskom snagom ostaje popularan iz razloga smanjenja troškova, slobodnog vremena, fizičkih vježbi, i zaštite okoline; nekad je to jedini dostupan oblik, posebno u nerazvijenim ili nepristupačnim regijama.

Iako su ljudi u mogućnosti hodati bez infrastrukture, transport može biti poboljšan korištenjem cesti, posebno kada ljudi koriste vozila, poput bicikala i skejtova. Vozila koja koriste ljudsku snagu također su pravljena za teške uvjete okoline, kao što su snijeg i voda, skuterom za veslanje i skijanjem; čak se može u ovo ubrojati i zrak, korištenjem avijacije s ljudskim pogonom.

Životinje[uredi | uredi izvor]

Transport sa životinjskim pogonom jeste korištenje radnih životinja za premještanje ljudi i dobara. Ljudi mogu jahati neku životinju direktno, koristiti je kao tovarnu za prijenos dobara, ili ih iskoristiti samostalno ili u timu, da vuku sanke ili vozila s točkovima.

Zrak[uredi | uredi izvor]

Glavna stranica: Avijacija

Zrakoplov fiksnih krila, uobičajeno zvan avion, jeste letjelica teža od zraka gdje je kretanje zraka u odnosu sa krilima korišteno da napravi podizanje. Pojam se koristi za razlikovanje ovog od aviona rotacijskih krila, gdje kretanje pomičućih površina relativno na zrak pravi dizanje. Žiroplan je istovremeno sa nepomičnim krilima i rotirajućim krilima. Avion sa fiksnim krilima rangira od malih trenerskih i rekreacijskih zrakoplova do velikih aviokompanija i vojnih teretnih aviona.

Dvije stvari potrebne za zrakoplov su protok zraka preko krila radi podizanja i površina za prizemljivanje. Većina zrakoplova također zahtijeva aerodrom sa infrastrukturom radi opravke, obnavljanja, punjenja gorivom i za ukrcavanje i iskrcavanje posade, tereta i putnika. Dok je velika većina zrakoplova sposobna da se spušta na tlo i podiže s tla, neki su u mogućnosti spustiti se na led, snijeg i mirnu vodu.

Avijacija je druga najbrža metoda transporta, poslije rakete. Komercijalni džetovi mogu dostići do 955 km/h, jednomotorni avion 555 km/h. Avijacija je u mogućnosti da brzo transportira ljude i ograničene količine robe preko velikih udaljenosti, ali uzima velike troškove i energiju; za kratke udaljenosti ili za nepristupačna mjesta, helikopteri se mogu koristiti.[1] Od 28. aprila 2009. članak iz The Guardiana bilježi da, "WHO procjenjuje da ima do 500.000 ljudi u avionima u svakom trenutku."[2]

Željeznica[uredi | uredi izvor]

Glavna stranica: Željeznički transport
New York City Subway je svjetski najveći rapid transit sistem po dužini ruta i po broju stanica.
White electric train with red cheatline emerging from tunnel in the countryside
InterCityExpress, njemački putnički brzi voz

Željeznički transport je onaj transport gdje se voz kreće duž dvije paralelne čelične šine, poznate kao željeznička pruga. Šine su utemeljene okomito na veze (ili pragove) od drveta, betona ili čelika, da zadrže konzistentnu udaljenost jedna od druge. Šine i okomite grede su smještene na temelj napravljen od betona, ili kompresirane zemlje i šljunka u "krevetu" od balasta. Alternativne metode uključuju prugu s jednim kolosjekom i maglev.

Voz se sastoji iz jednog ili više povezanih vozila koji operiraju na šinama. Pogon se obično ostvaruje preko lokomotive, za prijevoz serije vagona bez napajanja koji mogu nositi putnike ili teret. Lokomotiva može biti napajana parom, dizelom ili električnom strujom koju predaju sistemi staza. Alternativno, neki ili svi vagoni mogu biti napajani, što je poznato kao višestruka jedinica. Također, voz može biti pokretan konjskom snagom, kablovima, gravitacijom, pneumaticima i gasnim turbinama. Pokretani vagoni se kreću sa mnogo manje trenja od vozila sa gumama na asfaltiranim cestama, što čini vozove energetski efikasnije, ali ipak ne toliko efikasne kao što su brodovi.

Međugradski vozovi su dugolinijske usluge koje spajaju gradove;[3] moderne visokobrzinske željeznice su u mogućnosti razvijanja brzina do 350 km/h (220 mph), ali ovo zahtijeva posebno napravljene trake. Regionalni i putnički vozovi hrane gradove od predgradskih i okolnih sredina, dok se intraurbani transport održava visokokapacitetskim tramvajima i brzim tranzitima, često praveći okosnice gradskog javnog transporta. Teretni vozovi tradicionalno koriste box vagone, zahtijevajući ručni utovar i istovar tereta. Od 1960-tih, kontejner vozovi su postali dominantno rješenje za opće terete, dok se velike količine rasutog tereta prevoze namjenskim vozovima.

Cesta[uredi | uredi izvor]

Glavna stranica: Cestovni transport
Harbor Freeway je često pretrpana tokom sati gužve u Los Angelesu.

A road is an identifiable route, way or path between two or more places.[4] Roads are typically smoothed, paved, or otherwise prepared to allow easy travel;[5] though they need not be, and historically many roads were simply recognizable routes without any formal construction or maintenance.[6] In urban areas, roads may pass through a city or village and be named as streets, serving a dual function as urban space easement and route.[7]

Najčešće cestovno vozilo je automobil; putničko vozilo s točkovima koje sa sobom nosi motor. Ostali korisnici ceste su busevi, kamioni, motocikli, bicikli i pedestrians. Od 2010, bilo je 1.015 milijardi automobila širom svijeta. Cestovni promet nudi potpunu slobodu korisnicima cesta za prijenos vozila sa jedne lokacije na drugu i sa jedne ceste na drugu prema potrebi i zgodi. Ova fleksibilnost promjena u lokaciji, smjeru, brzini i tajmingu putovanja nije dostupna za ostale načine transporta. Moguće je omogućiti servis vrata-do-vrata jedino cestovnim transportom.

Automobili pružaju visoku fleksibilnost sa malim kapacitetom, ali zahtjevaju visoko korištenje energije i površine, te su glavni izvor buke i zagađenja zraka u gradovima; autobusi dopuštaju efikasnije putovanje sa gubitkom na smanjenoj fleksibilnosti.[8] Cestovni transport kamionima je često početna i krajnja faza freight transporta.

Voda[uredi | uredi izvor]

Glavna stranica: Brodski transport
Sagrađen od strane Holanđana za transport začina, danas se koristi od strane lokalnih ribara da put do mora, Negombo holandski kanal, Šri Lanka
White ferry with ramps in the up-position, moored at jetty
Trajekt automobila u Hrvatskoj

Vodeni transport je kretanje u smislu watercraft poput barke, boat, ship ili sailboat kroz vodenu površinu, poput mora, okeana, jezera, kanala ili rijeke. Potreba za buoyancy je česta za vodeni transport, praveći hull dominantan aspekt ove konstrukcije, održavanja i izgleda.

U 19. stoljeću prvi steam ships je razvijen, koristeći steam engine za vožnju paddle wheel ili propelera za pokretanje broda. The steam was produced in a boiler using wood or coal and fed through a steam external combustion engine. Now most ships have an internal combustion engine using a slightly refined type of petroleum called bunker fuel. Some ships, such as submarines, use nuclear power to produce the steam. Recreational or educational craft still use wind power, while some smaller craft use internal combustion engines to drive one or more propellers, or in the case of jet boats, an inboard water jet. In shallow draft areas, hovercraft are propelled by large pusher-prop fans. (See Marine propulsion.)

Iako spor, moderni morski transport je visoko efikasna metoda transportiranja velikih količina dobara. Komercijalna vesla, skoro 35.000 u broju, nosila su 7,4 milijarde tona robe u 2007. godini.[9] Transport by water is significantly less costly than air transport for transcontinental shipping;[10] short sea shipping and ferries remain viable in coastal areas.[11][12]

Ostali načini[uredi | uredi izvor]

Oil pipeline winding through cold Alaskan country-side. In the background are mountains, partly snow-capped
Trans-Aljaska naftovod za sirovu naftu

Pipeline transport sends goods through a pipe; most commonly liquid and gases are sent, but pneumatic tubes can also send solid capsules using compressed air. For liquids/gases, any chemically stable liquid or gas can be sent through a pipeline. Short-distance systems exist for sewage, slurry, water and beer, while long-distance networks are used for petroleum and natural gas.

Kablovski transport je širok način gdje se vozila pomjeraju kablovima umjesto unutarnjim izvorom snage. It is most commonly used at steep gradient. Tipična rješenja uključuju zračni tramvaj, liftove, eskalatore i ski-liftove; neki od ovih su također kategorizirani kao konvejerski transport.

Spaceflight is transport out of Earth's atmosphere into outer space by means of a spacecraft. While large amounts of research have gone into technology, it is rarely used except to put satellites into orbit, and conduct scientific experiments. However, man has landed on the moon, and probes have been sent to all the planets of the Solar System.

Suborbital spaceflight is the fastest of the existing and planned transport systems from a place on Earth to a distant other place on Earth. Faster transport could be achieved through part of a low Earth orbit, or following that trajectory even faster using the propulsion of the rocket to steer it.

Elementi[uredi | uredi izvor]

Infrastruktura[uredi | uredi izvor]

Glavna stranica: Infrastruktura
Mostovi, kao Golden Gate Bridge, dopuštaju cestama i prugama prelaz preko vode.

Infrastruktura je fiksna instalacija koja dopušta vozilu da operira. Sastoji se od puta, terminala i postrojenja za parkiranje i opravku. Za željeznicu, cjevovode, cestu i kablovski transport, cjelokupan put kojim vozilo putuje mora biti izgrađen. Zračni i vodeni brodovi imaju mogućnost zaobići ovo, jer zračna linija i morska linija ne trebaju biti napravljene. Ipak, oni zahtjevaju fiksnu infrastrukturu na terminalima.

Terminali kao što su aerodromi, ports i stanice, lokacije su gdje putnici i roba mogu biti prebačeni sa jednog vozila, ili načina transporta, na drugo. Za putnički transport, terminali integriraju različite načine da pruže riders to interchange to take advantage of each mode's advantages. For instance, airport rail links connect airports to the city centers and suburbs. The terminals for automobiles are parking lots, while buses and coaches can operate from simple stops.[13] For freight, terminals act as transshipment points, though some cargo is transported directly from the point of production to the point of use.

Finansiranje infrastrukture može biti javno ili privatno. Transport je često prirodni monopol i potreba javnosti; ceste, te u nekim državama željezničke pruge i aerodromi, finansiraju se kroz porez. Novi projekti infrastrukture mogu imati veliki trošak, te se često finansiraju kroz dug. Većina vlasnika infrastrukture therefore impose usage fees, such as landing fees at airports, or toll plazas on roads. Independent of this, authorities may impose taxes on the purchase or use of vehicles. Because of poor forecasting and overestimation of passenger numbers by planners, there is frequently a benefits shortfall for transport infrastructure projects.[14]

Vozila[uredi | uredi izvor]

Glavna stranica: Vozilo
Fiat Uno u 2008. godini

Vozilo je svaki neživi uređaj koji se koristi za pomjeranje ljudi i dobara. Za razliku od infrastrukture, vozilo se pomjera zajedno sa cargo i riders. Unless being pulled by a cable or muscle-power, vozilo mora pružiti vlastitu propulziju; ovo je najčešće rađeno kroz steam engine, combustion engine, electric motor, a jet engine or a rocket, though other means of propulsion also exist. Vehicles also need a system of converting the energy into movement; this is most commonly done through wheels, propellers and pressure.

Vozilima najčešće upravlja vozač. Ipak, neki sistemi, kao što su people movers and some rapid transits, are fully automated. For passenger transport, the vehicle must have a compartment for the passengers. Simple vehicles, such as automobiles, bicycles or simple aircraft, may have one of the passengers as a driver.

Operacija[uredi | uredi izvor]

Private transport is only subject to the owner of the vehicle, who operates the vehicle themselves. For public transport and freight transport, operations are done through private enterprise or by governments. The infrastructure and vehicles may be owned and operated by the same company, or they may be operated by different entities. Tradicionalno, većina država je imala nacionalnu zračnu liniju i nacionalnu željeznicu. Od 1980-tih, većina ovih je bila privatizirana. Međunarodni shipping ostaje visoko-kompetitivna industrija sa malo regulacije,[15] ali luke mogu biti javno vlasništvo.[16]

Funkcije[uredi | uredi izvor]

Premještanje putnika i robe su najčešći načini korištenja transporta. Ipak, postoje i ostale vrste upotrebe, poput strategijske i taktičke relokacije oružanih snaga tokom bojišta, ili civilne mobilne konstrukcije ili opreme za hitnu pomoć.

Putnici[uredi | uredi izvor]

Glavne stranice: Putovanje i Javni tranzit
Light green, orange and white bus stopping in front of multi-story building.
Lokalni tranzitni bus kojim upravlja ACTION u Canberri, Australija

Putnički transport, ili putovanje, podijeljen(o) je u javni i privatni transport. Javni transport je rasporedni servis na određenim rutama, dok je privatni vozila koja omogućavaju ad hoc usluge prema želji putnika. Ovaj drugi nudi bolju fleksibilnost, ali manji kapacitet, te veći okolinski utjecaj. Putovanje može biti dio dnevnog commuting, za biznis, leisure ili migracije.

Short-haul transport is dominated by the automobile and mass transit. The latter consists of buses in rural and small cities, supplemented with commuter rail, trams and rapid transit in larger cities. Long-haul transport involves the use of the automobile, trains, coaches and aircraft, the last of which have become predominantly used for the longest, including intercontinental, travel. Intermodal passenger transport is where a journey is performed through the use of several modes of transport; since all human transport normally starts and ends with walking, all passenger transport can be considered intermodal. Public transport may also involve the intermediate change of vehicle, within or across modes, at a transport hub, such as a bus or railway station.

Taxiji i busevi se mogu naći na oba kraja spektra javnog transporta. Busevi su jeftiniji način transporta, ali nisu bitno fleksibilni, a taksiji su više fleksibilni a skuplji. U sredini je demand-responsive transport, koji nudi i fleksibilnost i isplativost.

Međunarodno putovanje može biti ograničeno za neke osobe zbog zakonodavstva i viznih zahtjeva.

Freight[uredi | uredi izvor]

Glavna stranica: Shipping

Freight transport, or shipping, is a key in the value chain in manufacturing.[17] With increased specialization and globalization, production is being located further away from consumption, rapidly increasing the demand for transport.[18] While all modes of transport are used for cargo transport, there is high differentiation between the nature of the cargo transport, in which mode is chosen.[19] Logistics refers to the entire process of transferring products from producer to consumer, including storage, transport, transshipment, warehousing, material-handling and packaging, with associated exchange of information.[20] Incoterm deals with the handling of payment and responsibility of risk during transport.[21]

Teretni voz sa kontejnerima u UK

Containerization, with the standardization of ISO containers on all vehicles and at all ports, has revolutionized international and domestic trade, offering huge reduction in transshipment costs. Traditionally, all cargo had to be manually loaded and unloaded into the haul of any ship or car; containerization allows for automated handling and transfer between modes, and the standardized sizes allow for gains in economy of scale in vehicle operation. This has been one of the key driving factors in international trade and globalization since the 1950s.[22]

Bulk transport is common with cargo that can be handled roughly without deterioration; typical examples are ore, coal, cereals and petroleum. Because of the uniformity of the product, mechanical handling can allow enormous quantities to be handled quickly and efficiently. The low value of the cargo combined with high volume also means that economies of scale become essential in transport, and gigantic ships and whole trains are commonly used to transport bulk. Liquid products with sufficient volume may also be transported by pipeline.

Air freight has become more common for products of high value; while less than one percent of world transport by volume is by airline, it amounts to forty percent of the value. Time has become especially important in regards to principles such as postponement and just-in-time within the value chain, resulting in a high willingness to pay for quick delivery of key components or items of high value-to-weight ratio.[23] In addition to mail, common items sent by air include electronics and fashion clothing.

Historija[uredi | uredi izvor]

Glavna stranica: Historija transporta
Krdo volova prevozi vunu u Australiji.

Humans' first means of transport were walking and swimming. The domestication of animals introduces a new way to lay the burden of transport on more powerful creatures, allowing heavier loads to be hauled, or humans to ride the animals for higher speed and duration. Inventions such as the wheel and sled helped make animal transport more efficient through the introduction of vehicles. Also water transport, including rowed and sailed vessels, dates back to time immemorial, and was the only efficient way to transport large quantities or over large distances prior to the Industrial Revolution.

The first forms of road transport were horses, oxen or even humans carrying goods over dirt tracks that often followed game trails. Paved roads were built by many early civilizations, including Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley Civilization. The Persian and Roman empires built stone-paved roads to allow armies to travel quickly. Deep roadbeds of crushed stone underneath ensured that the roads kept dry. The medieval Caliphate later built tar-paved roads. The first watercraft were canoes cut out from tree trunks. Early water transport was accomplished with ships that were either rowed or used the wind for propulsion, or a combination of the two. The importance of water has led to most cities, that grew up as sites for trading, being located on rivers or at sea, often at the intersection of two bodies of water. Until the Industrial Revolution, transport remained slow and costly, and production and consumption were located as close to each other as feasible.

Prvi let braće Wright tokom 1903.

The Industrial Revolution in the 19th century saw a number of inventions fundamentally change transport. With telegraphy, communication became instant and independent of transport. The invention of the steam engine, closely followed by its application in rail transport, made land transport independent of human or animal muscles. Both speed and capacity increased rapidly, allowing specialization through manufacturing being located independent of natural resources. The 19th century also saw the development of the steam ship, that sped up global transport.

With the development of the combustion engine and the automobile at the turn into the 20th century, road transport became more viable, allowing the introduction of mechanical private transport. The first highways were constructed during the 19th century with macadam. Later, tarmac and concrete became the dominant paving material. In 1903, the first controllable airplane was demonstrated, and after World War I, it became a fast way to transport people and express goods over long distances.[24]

After World War II, the automobile and airlines took higher shares of transport, reducing rail and water to freight and short-haul passenger.[25] Scientific spaceflight was launched in the 1950s, with rapid growth until the 1970s, when interest dwindled. In the 1950s, the introduction of containerization gave massive efficiency gains in freight transport, permitting globalization.[22] International air travel became much more accessible in the 1960s, with the commercialization of the jet engine. Along with the growth in automobiles and motorways, this introduced a decline for rail and water transport. After the introduction of the Shinkansen in 1964, high-speed rail in Asia and Europe started taking passengers on long-haul routes from airlines.[25]

Early in U.S. history, most aqueducts, bridges, canals, railroads, roads, and tunnels were owned by private joint-stock corporations. Most such transportation infrastructure came under government control in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, culminating in the nationalization of inter-city passenger rail service with the creation of Amtrak. Recently, however, a movement to privatize roads and other infrastructure has gained some ground and adherents.[26] Šablon:Further2

Utjecaj[uredi | uredi izvor]

Glavna stranica: Održivi transport

Ekonomija[uredi | uredi izvor]

Skyline of city at dawn. A major highway winds itself into the downtown area.
Transport je ključna komponenta rasta i globalizacije, kao što je to u Seattleu, Washington, SAD.

Transport je ključna potreba za specijalizacije koja pruža proizvodnju i konzumiranje proizvoda prema različitim lokacijama. Transport je kroz historiju been a spur to expansion; better transport allows more trade and a greater spread of people. Economic growth has always been dependent on increasing the capacity and rationality of transport.[27] But the infrastructure and operation of transport has a great impact on the land and is the largest drainer of energy, making transport sustainability a major issue.

Moderno društvo diktira fizičkom distinkcijom između kuće i posla, forsirajući ljude da se transportuju na mjesta rada ili studiranja, kao i da se privremeno relociraju za druge dnevne aktivnosti. Putnički transport je također osnova turizma, velikog dijela rekreativnog transporta. Commerce requires the transport of people to conduct business, either to allow face-to-face communication for important decisions or to move specialists from their regular place of work to sites where they are needed.

Planiranje[uredi | uredi izvor]

Glavna stranica: Planiranje transporta

Planiranje transporta allows for high utilization and less impact regarding new infrastructure. Using models of transport forecasting, planners are able to predict future transport patterns. On the operative level, logistics allows owners of cargo to plan transport as part of the supply chain. Transport as a field is studied through transport economics, the backbone for the creation of regulation policy by authorities. Transport engineering, a sub-discipline of civil engineering, must take into account trip generation, trip distribution, mode choice and route assignment, while the operative level is handled through traffic engineering.

Aerial view of roundabout, a junction of several streets. Vehicles traverse around the roundabout, which is surrounded by buildings, mostly multi-storey
Inženjering ovog kružnog toka u Bristolu, Velika Britanija, pokušava napraviti tok saobraćaja slobodno pokretnim.

Because of the negative impacts incurred, transport often becomes the subject of controversy related to choice of mode, as well as increased capacity. Automotive transport can be seen as a tragedy of the commons, where the flexibility and comfort for the individual deteriorate the natural and urban environment for all. Density of development depends on mode of transport, with public transport allowing for better spacial utilization. Good land use keeps common activities close to people's homes and places higher-density development closer to transport lines and hubs, to minimize the need for transport. There are economies of agglomeration. Beyond transportation some land uses are more efficient when clustered. Transportation facilities consume land, and in cities, pavement (devoted to streets and parking) can easily exceed 20 percent of the total land use. An efficient transport system can reduce land waste.

Too much infrastructure and too much smoothing for maximum vehicle throughput means that in many cities there is too much traffic and many—if not all—of the negative impacts that come with it. It is only in recent years that traditional practices have started to be questioned in many places, and as a result of new types of analysis which bring in a much broader range of skills than those traditionally relied on—spanning such areas as environmental impact analysis, public health, sociologists as well as economists—the viability of the old mobility solutions is increasingly being questioned. European cities are leading this transition.

Okolina[uredi | uredi izvor]

Looking down a busy road, which is banked on both sides by tall buildings, some of which are covered in advertisement billboards
Zagušenja saobraćaja i dalje postoje u gradu Sao Paulo, Brazil, uprkos danima zabrane kretanja na osnovu broja licenci.

Transport is a major use of energy and burns most of the world's petroleum. This creates air pollution, including nitrous oxides and particulates, and is a significant contributor to global warming through emission of carbon dioxide,[28] for which transport is the fastest-growing emission sector.[29] By subsector, road transport is the largest contributor to global warming.[30] Environmental regulations in developed countries have reduced individual vehicles' emissions; however, this has been offset by increases in the numbers of vehicles and in the use of each vehicle.[28] Neki putevi značajnog smanjenja emisije ugljika cestovnih vozila se izučavaju.[31][32] Energy use and emissions vary largely between modes, causing environmentalists to call for a transition from air and road to rail and human-powered transport, as well as increased transport electrification and energy efficiency.

Ostali okolinski utjecaji na transportne sisteme uključuju traffic congestion i automobile-oriented urban sprawl, što uzima prirodna staništa i agrikulturalna tla. Smanjenjem emisija transporta globalno, pretpostavlja se da će se napraviti značajan pozitivan učinak na kvalitet zraka Zemlje, kisele kiše, smog i klimatske promjene.[33]

Također pogledajte[uredi | uredi izvor]

Reference[uredi | uredi izvor]

  1. ^ Cooper et al., 1998: 281
  2. ^ Swine flu prompts EU warning on travel to US. The Guardian. April 28, 2009.
  3. ^ Cooper et al., 1998: 279
  4. ^ "Major Roads of the United States". United States Department of the Interior. 2006-03-13. Pristupljeno 24 March 2007. 
  5. ^ "Road Infrastructure Strategic Framework for South Africa". National Department of Transport (South Africa). Pristupljeno 24 March 2007. 
  6. ^ Lay, 1992: 6–7
  7. ^ "What is the difference between a road and a street?". Word FAQ. Lexico Publishing Group. 2007. Pristupljeno 24 March 2007. 
  8. ^ Cooper et al., 1998: 278
  9. ^ The United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) 2007, p. x and p. 32.
  10. ^ Stopford, 1997: 4–6
  11. ^ Stopford, 1997: 8–9
  12. ^ Cooper et al., 1998: 280
  13. ^ Cooper et al., 1998: 275–76
  14. ^ Bent Flyvbjerg, Mette K. Skamris Holm, and Søren L. Buhl, "How (In)Accurate Are Demand Forecasts in Public Works Projects", Journal of the American Planning Association 71:2, pp. 131–146.
  15. ^ Stopford, 1997: 422
  16. ^ Stopford, 1997: 29
  17. ^ Chopra and Meindl, 2007: 3
  18. ^ Chopra and Meindl, 2007: 63–64
  19. ^ Chopra and Meindl, 2007: 54
  20. ^ Bardi, Coyle and Novack, 2006: 4
  21. ^ Bardi, Coyle and Novack, 2006: 473
  22. ^ a b Bardi, Coyle and Novack, 2006: 211–14
  23. ^ Chopra and Meindl, 2007: 328
  24. ^ Bardi, Coyle and Novack, 2006: 158
  25. ^ a b Cooper et al., 1998: 277
  26. ^ Clifford Winston, Last Exit: Privatization and Deregulation of the U.S. Transportation System (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 2010).
  27. ^ Stopford, 1997: 2
  28. ^ a b Fuglestvet et al., Center for International Climate and Environmental Research (2007). "Climate forcing from the transport sectors". 
  29. ^ Worldwatch Institute (16 January 2008). "Analysis: Nano Hypocrisy?". 
  30. ^ Climate forcing from the transport sectors, Jan Fuglestvedt, Terje Berntsen, Gunnar Myhre, Kristin Rypdal, and Ragnhild Bieltvedt Skeie, January 15, 2008, vol. 105, no. 2, PNAS.org
  31. ^ "Claverton-Energy.com". Claverton-Energy.com. 2009-02-17. Pristupljeno 2010-05-23. 
  32. ^ Data on the barriers and motivators to more sustainable transport behaviour is available in the UK Department for Transport study "Climate Change and Transport Choices" published in December 2010.
  33. ^ Environment Canada. "Transportation". Pristupljeno 30 July 2008. [mrtav link]

Literatura[uredi | uredi izvor]

Vanjski linkovi[uredi | uredi izvor]

Commons logo
U Wikimedijinom spremniku se nalazi još materijala vezanih uz: