Modul:Citation/CS1

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Ovaj modul se sastoji od funkcija koje podržavaju stil citiranja na Wikipediji. Ovaj stil citiranja se zove CS1 (en. Citation Style 1).

Ovaj modul je meta-modul i nije napravljen da se koristi direktno u člancima, nego preko šablona. Primjeri su:

[icon] Ova sekcija nije prevedena ili je djelimično prevedena.

CS1 se sastoji od sljedećih stranica:


 
local z = {
	error_categories = {};		-- for categorizing citations that contain errors
	error_ids = {};
	message_tail = {};
	maintenance_cats = {};		-- for categorizing citations that aren't erroneous per se, but could use a little work
	properties_cats = {};		-- for categorizing citations based on certain properties, language of source for instance
}
 
-- Whether variable is set or not
function is_set( var )
	return not (var == nil or var == '');
end
 
-- First set variable or nil if none
function first_set(...)
	local list = {...};
	for _, var in pairs(list) do
		if is_set( var ) then
			return var;
		end
	end
end
 
-- Whether needle is in haystack
function inArray( needle, haystack )
	if needle == nil then
		return false;
	end
	for n,v in ipairs( haystack ) do
		if v == needle then
			return n;
		end
	end
	return false;
end
 
--[[
Categorize and emit an error message when the citation contains one or more deprecated parameters.  Because deprecated parameters (currently |month=,
|coauthor=, and |coauthors=) aren't related to each other and because these parameters may be concatenated into the variables used by |date= and |author#= (and aliases)
details of which parameter caused the error message are not provided.  Only one error message is emitted regardless of the number of deprecated parameters in the citation.
]]
function deprecated_parameter(name)
	if true ~= Page_in_deprecated_cat then	-- if we haven't been here before then set a 
		Page_in_deprecated_cat=true;		-- sticky flag so that if there are more than one deprecated parameter the category is added only once
		table.insert( z.message_tail, { seterror( 'deprecated_params', {name}, true ) } );		-- add error message
	end
end
 
-- Populates numbered arguments in a message string using an argument table.
function substitute( msg, args )
	return args and mw.message.newRawMessage( msg, args ):plain() or msg;
end
 
--[[--------------------------< K E R N _ Q U O T E S >--------------------------------------------------------
 
Apply kerning to open the space between the quote mark provided by the Module and a leading or trailing quote mark contained in a |title= or |chapter= parameter's value.
This function will positive kern either single or double quotes:
	"'Unkerned title with leading and trailing single quote marks'"
	" 'Kerned title with leading and trailing single quote marks' " (in real life the kerning isn't as wide as this example)
Double single quotes (italic or bold wikimarkup) are not kerned.
 
Call this function for chapter titles, for website titles, etc; not for book titles.
 
]]
 
function kern_quotes (str)
	local cap='';
	local cap2='';
 
	cap, cap2 = str:match ("^([\"\'])([^\'].+)");								-- match leading double or single quote but not double single quotes
	if is_set (cap) then
		str = substitute (cfg.presentation['kern-left'], {cap, cap2});
	end
 
	cap, cap2 = str:match ("^(.+[^\'])([\"\'])$")
	if is_set (cap) then
		str = substitute (cfg.presentation['kern-right'], {cap, cap2});
	end
	return str;
end
 
--[[--------------------------< F O R M A T _ S C R I P T _ V A L U E >----------------------------------------
 
|script-title= holds title parameters that are not written in Latin based scripts: Chinese, Japanese, Arabic, Hebrew, etc. These scripts should
not be italicized and may be written right-to-left.  The value supplied by |script-title= is concatenated onto Title after Title has been wrapped
in italic markup.
 
Regardless of language, all values provided by |script-title= are wrapped in <bdi>...</bdi> tags to isolate rtl languages from the English left to right.
 
|script-title= provides a unique feature.  The value in |script-title= may be prefixed with a two-character ISO639-1 language code and a colon:
	|script-title=ja:*** *** (where * represents a Japanese character)
Spaces between the two-character code and the colon and the colon and the first script character are allowed:
	|script-title=ja : *** ***
	|script-title=ja: *** ***
	|script-title=ja :*** ***
Spaces preceding the prefix are allowed: |script-title = ja:*** ***
 
The prefix is checked for validity.  If it is a valid ISO639-1 language code, the lang attribute (lang="ja") is added to the <bdi> tag so that browsers can
know the language the tag contains.  This may help the browser render the script more correctly.  If the prefix is invalid, the lang attribute
is not added.  At this time there is no error message for this condition.
 
At this writing, only |script-title= is supported.  It is anticipated that additional parameters will be created to use this function.
 
TODO: error messages when prefix is invalid ISO639-1 code; when script_value has prefix but no script;
]]
 
function format_script_value (script_value)
	local lang='';																-- initialize to empty string
	local name;
	if script_value:match('^%l%l%s*:') then										-- if first 3 non-space characters are script language prefix
		lang = script_value:match('^(%l%l)%s*:%s*%S.*');						-- get the language prefix or nil if there is no script
		if not is_set (lang) then
			return '';															-- script_value was just the prefix so return empty string
		end
																				-- if we get this far we have prefix and script
		name = mw.language.fetchLanguageName( lang, "bs" );						-- get language name so that we can use it to categorize
		if is_set (name) then													-- is prefix a proper ISO 639-1 language code?
			script_value = script_value:gsub ('^%l%l%s*:%s*', '');				-- strip prefix from script
																				-- is prefix one of these language codes?
			if inArray (lang, {'ar', 'bs', 'dv', 'el', 'fa', 'hy', 'ja', 'ko', 'ku', 'he', 'ps', 'ru', 'sd', 'sr', 'th', 'uk', 'ug', 'yi', 'zh'}) then
				table.insert( z.properties_cats, 'CS1 upotrebe (' .. name .. ')');	-- categorize in language-specific categories
			else
				table.insert( z.properties_cats, 'CS1 upotrebe na stranom jeziku');	-- use this category as a catchall until language-specific category is available
			end
			lang = ' lang="' .. lang .. '" ';									-- convert prefix into a lang attribute
		else
			lang = '';															-- invalid so set lang to empty string
		end
	end
	script_value = substitute (cfg.presentation['bdi'], {lang, script_value});	-- isolate in case script is rtl
 
	return script_value;
end
 
--[[--------------------------< S C R I P T _ C O N C A T E N A T E >------------------------------------------
 
Initially for |title= and |script-title=, this function concatenates those two parameter values after the script value has been 
wrapped in <bdi> tags.
]]
 
function script_concatenate (title, script)
	if is_set (script) then
		script = format_script_value (script);									-- <bdi> tags, lang atribute, categorization, etc; returns empty string on error
		if is_set (script) then
			title = title .. ' ' .. script;										-- concatenate title and script title
		end
	end
	return title;
end
 
 
--[[--------------------------< W R A P _ S T Y L E >----------------------------------------------------------
 
Applies styling to various parameters.  Supplied string is wrapped using a message_list configuration taking one
argument; protects italic styled parameters.  Additional text taken from citation_config.presentation - the reason
this function is similar to but separate from wrap_msg().
 
]]
 
function wrap_style (key, str)
	if not is_set( str ) then
		return "";
	elseif inArray( key, { 'italic-title', 'trans-italic-title' } ) then
		str = safeforitalics( str );
	end
 
	return substitute( cfg.presentation[key], {str} );
end
 
 
--[[--------------------------< W R A P _ M S G >--------------------------------------------------------------
 
Applies additional message text to various parameter values. Supplied string is wrapped using a message_list
configuration taking one argument.  Supports lower case text for {{citation}} templates.  Additional text taken
from citation_config.messages - the reason this function is similar to but separate from wrap_style().
 
]]
 
function wrap_msg (key, str, lower)
	if not is_set( str ) then
		return "";
	end
	if true == lower then
		local msg;
		msg = cfg.messages[key]:lower();										-- set the message to lower case before 
		str = substitute( msg, {str} );											-- including template text
		return str;
	else
		return substitute( cfg.messages[key], {str} );
	end		
end
 
--[[--------------------------< F O R M A T _ C H A P T E R _ T I T L E >--------------------------------------
 
Format the three chapter parameters: |chapter=, |trans-chapter=, and |chapter-url= into a single Chapter meta-
parameter (chapter_url_source used for error messages).
 
]]
 
function format_chapter_title (chapter, transchapter, chapterurl, chapter_url_source)
	local chapter_error = '';
 
	if not is_set (chapter) then
		chapter = '';															-- just to be safe for concatenation
		if is_set (transchapter) then
			chapter = wrap_style ('trans-quoted-title', transchapter);
			chapter_error = " " .. seterror ('trans_missing_chapter');
		end
		if is_set (chapterurl) then
			chapter = externallink (chapterurl, chapter, chapter_url_source);	-- adds bare_url_missing_title error if appropriate
		end
		return chapter .. chapter_error;
	else																		-- here when chapter is set
		chapter = kern_quotes (chapter);										-- if necessary, separate chapter title's leading and trailing quote marks from Module provided quote marks
		chapter = wrap_style ('quoted-title', chapter);
		if is_set (transchapter) then
			transchapter = wrap_style ('trans-quoted-title', transchapter);
			chapter = chapter .. ' ' .. transchapter;
		end
		if is_set (chapterurl) then
			chapter = externallink (chapterurl, chapter);						-- adds bare_url_missing_title error if appropriate
		end
	end
	return chapter;
end
 
--[[
Argument wrapper.  This function provides support for argument 
mapping defined in the configuration file so that multiple names
can be transparently aliased to single internal variable.
]]
function argument_wrapper( args )
	local origin = {};
 
	return setmetatable({
		ORIGIN = function( self, k )
			local dummy = self[k]; --force the variable to be loaded.
			return origin[k];
		end
	},
	{
		__index = function ( tbl, k )
			if origin[k] ~= nil then
				return nil;
			end
 
			local args, list, v = args, cfg.aliases[k];
 
			if type( list ) == 'table' then
				v, origin[k] = selectone( args, list, 'redundant_parameters' );
				if origin[k] == nil then
					origin[k] = ''; -- Empty string, not nil
				end
			elseif list ~= nil then
				v, origin[k] = args[list], list;
			else
				-- maybe let through instead of raising an error?
				-- v, origin[k] = args[k], k;
				error( cfg.messages['unknown_argument_map'] );
			end
 
			-- Empty strings, not nil;
			if v == nil then
				v = cfg.defaults[k] or '';
				origin[k] = '';
			end
 
			tbl = rawset( tbl, k, v );
			return v;
		end,
	});
end
 
--[[
Looks for a parameter's name in the whitelist.
 
Parameters in the whitelist can have three values:
	true - active, supported parameters
	false - deprecated, supported parameters
	nil - unsupported parameters
]]
function validate( name )
	local name = tostring( name );
	local state = whitelist.basic_arguments[ name ];
 
	-- Normal arguments
	if true == state then return true; end		-- valid actively supported parameter
	if false == state then
		deprecated_parameter (name);				-- parameter is deprecated but still supported
		return true;
	end
 
	-- Arguments with numbers in them
	name = name:gsub( "%d+", "#" );				-- replace digit(s) with # (last25 becomes last#
	state = whitelist.numbered_arguments[ name ];
	if true == state then return true; end		-- valid actively supported parameter
	if false == state then
		deprecated_parameter (name);				-- parameter is deprecated but still supported
		return true;
	end
 
	return false;								-- Not supported because not found or name is set to nil
end
 
--[[--------------------------< E R R O R C O M M E N T >------------------------------------------------------
 
Wraps error messages with css markup according to the state of hidden.
 
]]
function errorcomment( content, hidden )
	return substitute( hidden and cfg.presentation['hidden-error'] or cfg.presentation['visible-error'], content );
end
 
--[[
Sets an error condition and returns the appropriate error message.  The actual placement
of the error message in the output is the responsibility of the calling function.
]]
function seterror( error_id, arguments, raw, prefix, suffix )
	local error_state = cfg.error_conditions[ error_id ];
 
	prefix = prefix or "";
	suffix = suffix or "";
 
	if error_state == nil then
		error( cfg.messages['undefined_error'] );
	elseif is_set( error_state.category ) then
		table.insert( z.error_categories, error_state.category );
	end
 
	local message = substitute( error_state.message, arguments );
 
	message = message .. " ([[" .. cfg.messages['help page link'] .. 
		"#" .. error_state.anchor .. "|" ..
		cfg.messages['help page label'] .. "]])";
 
	z.error_ids[ error_id ] = true;
	if inArray( error_id, { 'bare_url_missing_title', 'trans_missing_title' } )
			and z.error_ids['citation_missing_title'] then
		return '', false;
	end
 
	message = table.concat({ prefix, message, suffix });
 
	if raw == true then
		return message, error_state.hidden;
	end		
 
	return errorcomment( message, error_state.hidden );
end
 
-- Formats a wiki style external link
function externallinkid(options)
	local url_string = options.id;
	if options.encode == true or options.encode == nil then
		url_string = mw.uri.encode( url_string );
	end
	return mw.ustring.format( '[[%s|%s]]%s[%s%s%s %s]',
		options.link, options.label, options.separator or "&nbsp;",
		options.prefix, url_string, options.suffix or "",
		mw.text.nowiki(options.id)
	);
end
 
-- Formats a wiki style internal link
function internallinkid(options)
	return mw.ustring.format( '[[%s|%s]]%s[[%s%s%s|%s]]',
		options.link, options.label, options.separator or "&nbsp;",
		options.prefix, options.id, options.suffix or "",
		mw.text.nowiki(options.id)
	);
end
 
-- Format an external link with error checking
function externallink( URL, label, source )
	local error_str = "";
	if not is_set( label ) then
		label = URL;
		if is_set( source ) then
			error_str = seterror( 'bare_url_missing_title', { wrap_style ('parameter', source) }, false, " " );
		else
			error( cfg.messages["bare_url_no_origin"] );
		end			
	end
	if not checkurl( URL ) then
		error_str = seterror( 'bad_url', {}, false, " " ) .. error_str;
	end
	return table.concat({ "[", URL, " ", safeforurl( label ), "]", error_str });
end
 
--[[--------------------------< N O W R A P _ D A T E >--------------------------------------------------------
 
When date is YYYY-MM-DD format wrap in nowrap span: <span ...>YYYY-MM-DD</span>.  When date is DD MMMM YYYY or is
MMMM DD, YYYY then wrap in nowrap span: <span ...>DD MMMM</span> YYYY or <span ...>MMMM DD,</span> YYYY
 
DOES NOT yet support MMMM YYYY or any of the date ranges.
 
]]
 
function nowrap_date (date)
	local cap='';
	local cap2='';
 
	if date:match("^%d%d%d%d%-%d%d%-%d%d$") then
		date = substitute (cfg.presentation['nowrap1'], date);
 
	elseif date:match("%a+%s*%d%d?,%s*%d%d%d%d") or date:match ("%d%d?%s*%a+%s*%d%d%d%d") then
		cap, cap2 = string.match (date, "^(.*)%s+(%d%d%d%d)$");
		date = substitute (cfg.presentation['nowrap2'], {cap, cap2});
	end
 
	return date;
end
 
--[[--------------------------< A M A Z O N >------------------------------------------------------------------
 
Formats a link to Amazon.  Do simple error checking: asin must be mix of 10 numeric or uppercase alpha
characters.  If a mix, first character must be uppercase alpha; if all numeric, asins must be 10-digit
isbn. If 10-digit isbn, add a maintenance category so a bot or awb script can replace |asin= with |isbn=.
Error message if not 10 characters, if not isbn10, if mixed and first character is a digit.
 
]]
 
function amazon(id, domain)
	local err_cat = ""
 
	if not id:match("^[%d%u][%d%u][%d%u][%d%u][%d%u][%d%u][%d%u][%d%u][%d%u][%d%u]$") then
		err_cat =  ' ' .. seterror ('bad_asin');								-- asin is not a mix of 10 uppercase alpha and numeric characters
	else
		if id:match("^%d%d%d%d%d%d%d%d%d[%dX]$") then								-- if 10-digit numeric (or 9 digits with terminal X)
			if checkisbn( id ) then												-- see if asin value is isbn10
				table.insert( z.maintenance_cats, "CS1 održavanje: ASIN koristi ISBN broj");	-- add to maint category
			elseif not is_set (err_cat) then
				err_cat =  ' ' .. seterror ('bad_asin');						-- asin is not isbn10
			end
		elseif not id:match("^%u[%d%u]+$") then
			err_cat =  ' ' .. seterror ('bad_asin');							-- asin doesn't begin with uppercase alpha
		end
	end
	if not is_set(domain) then 
		domain = "com";
	elseif inArray (domain, {'jp', 'uk'}) then			-- Japan, United Kingdom
		domain = "co." .. domain;
	elseif inArray (domain, {'au', 'br', 'mx'}) then	-- Australia, Brazil, Mexico
		domain = "com." .. domain;
	end
	local handler = cfg.id_handlers['ASIN'];
	return externallinkid({link = handler.link,
		label=handler.label , prefix="//www.amazon."..domain.."/dp/",id=id,
		encode=handler.encode, separator = handler.separator}) .. err_cat;
end
 
--[[--------------------------< A R X I V >--------------------------------------------------------------------
 
See: http://arxiv.org/help/arxiv_identifier
 
format and error check arXiv identifier.  There are three valid forms of the identifier:
the first form, valid only between date codes 9108 and 0703 is:
	arXiv:<archive>.<class>/<date code><number><version>
where:
	<archive> is a string of alpha characters - may be hyphenated; no other punctuation
	<class> is a string of alpha characters - may be hyphenated; no other punctuation
	<date code> is four digits in the form YYMM where YY is the last two digits of the four-digit year and MM is the month number January = 01
		first digit of YY for this form can only 9 and 0
	<number> is a three-digit number
	<version> is a 1 or more digit number preceded with a lowercase v; no spaces (undocumented)
 
the second form, valid from April 2007 through December 2014 is:
	arXiv:<date code>.<number><version>
where:
	<date code> is four digits in the form YYMM where YY is the last two digits of the four-digit year and MM is the month number January = 01
	<number> is a four-digit number
	<version> is a 1 or more digit number preceded with a lowercase v; no spaces
 
the third form, valid from January 2015 is:
	arXiv:<date code>.<number><version>
where:
	<date code> and <version> are as defined for 0704-1412
	<number> is a five-digit number
]]
 
function arxiv (id)
	local handler = cfg.id_handlers['ARXIV'];
	local year, month, version;
	local err_cat = ""
 
	if id:match("^%a[%a%.%-]+/[90]%d[01]%d%d%d%d$") or id:match("^%a[%a%.%-]+/[90]%d[01]%d%d%d%dv%d+$") then	-- test for the 9108-0703 format w/ & w/o version
		year, month = id:match("^%a[%a%.%-]+/([90]%d)([01]%d)%d%d%d[v%d]*$");
		year = tonumber(year);
		month = tonumber(month);
		if ((not (90 < year or 8 > year)) or (1 > month or 12 < month)) or		-- if invalid year or invalid month
			((91 == year and 7 > month) or (7 == year and 3 < month)) then		-- if years ok, are starting and ending months ok?
				err_cat = ' ' .. seterror( 'bad_arxiv' );						-- set error message
		end
	elseif id:match("^%d%d[01]%d%.%d%d%d%d$") or id:match("^%d%d[01]%d%.%d%d%d%dv%d+$") then	-- test for the 0704-1412 w/ & w/o version
		year, month = id:match("^(%d%d)([01]%d)%.%d%d%d%d[v%d]*$");
		year = tonumber(year);
		month = tonumber(month);
		if ((7 > year) or (14 < year) or (1 > month or 12 < month)) or			-- is year invalid or is month invalid? (doesn't test for future years)
			((7 == year) and (4 > month)) then --or									-- when year is 07, is month invalid (before April)?
				err_cat = ' ' .. seterror( 'bad_arxiv' );						-- set error message
		end
	elseif id:match("^%d%d[01]%d%.%d%d%d%d%d$") or id:match("^%d%d[01]%d%.%d%d%d%d%dv%d+$") then	-- test for the 1501- format w/ & w/o version
		year, month = id:match("^(%d%d)([01]%d)%.%d%d%d%d%d[v%d]*$");
		year = tonumber(year);
		month = tonumber(month);
		if ((15 > year) or (1 > month or 12 < month)) then						-- is year invalid or is month invalid? (doesn't test for future years)
			err_cat = ' ' .. seterror( 'bad_arxiv' );							-- set error message
		end
	else
		err_cat = ' ' .. seterror( 'bad_arxiv' );								-- arXiv id doesn't match any format
	end
 
	return externallinkid({link = handler.link, label = handler.label,
			prefix=handler.prefix,id=id,separator=handler.separator, encode=handler.encode}) .. err_cat;
end
 
 
--[[
lccn normalization (http://www.loc.gov/marc/lccn-namespace.html#normalization)
1. Remove all blanks.
2. If there is a forward slash (/) in the string, remove it, and remove all characters to the right of the forward slash.
3. If there is a hyphen in the string:
	a. Remove it.
	b. Inspect the substring following (to the right of) the (removed) hyphen. Then (and assuming that steps 1 and 2 have been carried out):
		1. All these characters should be digits, and there should be six or less. (not done in this function)
		2. If the length of the substring is less than 6, left-fill the substring with zeroes until the length is six.
 
Returns a normalized lccn for lccn() to validate.  There is no error checking (step 3.b.1) performed in this function.
]]
 
function normalize_lccn (lccn)
	lccn = lccn:gsub ("%s", "");									-- 1. strip whitespace
 
	if nil ~= string.find (lccn,'/') then
		lccn = lccn:match ("(.-)/");								-- 2. remove forward slash and all character to the right of it
	end
 
	local prefix
	local suffix
	prefix, suffix = lccn:match ("(.+)%-(.+)");						-- 3.a remove hyphen by splitting the string into prefix and suffix
 
	if nil ~= suffix then											-- if there was a hyphen
		suffix=string.rep("0", 6-string.len (suffix)) .. suffix;	-- 3.b.2 left fill the suffix with 0s if suffix length less than 6
		lccn=prefix..suffix;										-- reassemble the lccn
	end
 
	return lccn;
	end
 
--[[
Format LCCN link and do simple error checking.  LCCN is a character string 8-12 characters long. The length of the LCCN dictates the character type of the first 1-3 characters; the
rightmost eight are always digits. http://info-uri.info/registry/OAIHandler?verb=GetRecord&metadataPrefix=reg&identifier=info:lccn/
 
length = 8 then all digits
length = 9 then lccn[1] is lower case alpha
length = 10 then lccn[1] and lccn[2] are both lower case alpha or both digits
length = 11 then lccn[1] is lower case alpha, lccn[2] and lccn[3] are both lower case alpha or both digits
length = 12 then lccn[1] and lccn[2] are both lower case alpha
 
]]
function lccn(lccn)
	local handler = cfg.id_handlers['LCCN'];
	local err_cat =  '';								-- presume that LCCN is valid
	local id = lccn;									-- local copy of the lccn
 
	id = normalize_lccn (id);							-- get canonical form (no whitespace, hyphens, forward slashes)
	local len = id:len();								-- get the length of the lccn
 
	if 8 == len then
		if id:match("[^%d]") then						-- if LCCN has anything but digits (nil if only digits)
			err_cat = ' ' .. seterror( 'bad_lccn' );	-- set an error message
		end
	elseif 9 == len then								-- LCCN should be adddddddd
		if nil == id:match("%l%d%d%d%d%d%d%d%d") then			-- does it match our pattern?
			err_cat = ' ' .. seterror( 'bad_lccn' );	-- set an error message
		end
	elseif 10 == len then								-- LCCN should be aadddddddd or dddddddddd
		if id:match("[^%d]") then							-- if LCCN has anything but digits (nil if only digits) ...
			if nil == id:match("^%l%l%d%d%d%d%d%d%d%d") then	-- ... see if it matches our pattern
				err_cat = ' ' .. seterror( 'bad_lccn' );	-- no match, set an error message
			end
		end
	elseif 11 == len then								-- LCCN should be aaadddddddd or adddddddddd
		if not (id:match("^%l%l%l%d%d%d%d%d%d%d%d") or id:match("^%l%d%d%d%d%d%d%d%d%d%d")) then	-- see if it matches one of our patterns
			err_cat = ' ' .. seterror( 'bad_lccn' );	-- no match, set an error message
		end
	elseif 12 == len then								-- LCCN should be aadddddddddd
		if not id:match("^%l%l%d%d%d%d%d%d%d%d%d%d") then	-- see if it matches our pattern
			err_cat = ' ' .. seterror( 'bad_lccn' );	-- no match, set an error message
		end
	else
		err_cat = ' ' .. seterror( 'bad_lccn' );		-- wrong length, set an error message
	end
 
	if not is_set (err_cat) and nil ~= lccn:find ('%s') then
		err_cat = ' ' .. seterror( 'bad_lccn' );		-- lccn contains a space, set an error message
	end
 
	return externallinkid({link = handler.link, label = handler.label,
			prefix=handler.prefix,id=lccn,separator=handler.separator, encode=handler.encode}) .. err_cat;
end
 
--[[
Format PMID and do simple error checking.  PMIDs are sequential numbers beginning at 1 and counting up.  This code checks the PMID to see that it
contains only digits and is less than test_limit; the value in local variable test_limit will need to be updated periodically as more PMIDs are issued.
]]
function pmid(id)
	local test_limit = 30000000;						-- update this value as PMIDs approach
	local handler = cfg.id_handlers['PMID'];
	local err_cat =  '';								-- presume that PMID is valid
 
	if id:match("[^%d]") then							-- if PMID has anything but digits
		err_cat = ' ' .. seterror( 'bad_pmid' );		-- set an error message
	else												-- PMID is only digits
		local id_num = tonumber(id);					-- convert id to a number for range testing
		if 1 > id_num or test_limit < id_num then		-- if PMID is outside test limit boundaries
			err_cat = ' ' .. seterror( 'bad_pmid' );	-- set an error message
		end
	end
 
	return externallinkid({link = handler.link, label = handler.label,
			prefix=handler.prefix,id=id,separator=handler.separator, encode=handler.encode}) .. err_cat;
end
 
--[[
Determines if a PMC identifier's online version is embargoed. Compares the date in |embargo= against today's date.  If embargo date is
in the future, returns true; otherwise, returns false because the embargo has expired or |embargo= not set in this cite.
]]
function is_embargoed(embargo)
	if is_set(embargo) then
		local lang = mw.getContentLanguage();
		local good1, embargo_date, good2, todays_date;
		good1, embargo_date = pcall( lang.formatDate, lang, 'U', embargo );
		good2, todays_date = pcall( lang.formatDate, lang, 'U' );
 
		if good1 and good2 and tonumber( embargo_date ) >= tonumber( todays_date ) then	--is embargo date is in the future?
			return true;	-- still embargoed
		end
	end
	return false;			-- embargo expired or |embargo= not set
end
 
--[[
Format a PMC, do simple error checking, and check for embargoed articles.
 
The embargo parameter takes a date for a value. If the embargo date is in the future
the PMC identifier will not be linked to the article.  If the embargo specifies a date in the past, or if it is empty or omitted, then
the PMC identifier is linked to the article through the link at cfg.id_handlers['PMC'].prefix.
 
PMCs are sequential numbers beginning at 1 and counting up.  This code checks the PMC to see that it contains only digits and is less
than test_limit; the value in local variable test_limit will need to be updated periodically as more PMCs are issued.
]]
function pmc(id, embargo)
	local test_limit = 5000000;							-- update this value as PMCs approach
	local handler = cfg.id_handlers['PMC'];
	local err_cat =  '';								-- presume that PMC is valid
 
	local text;
 
	if id:match("[^%d]") then							-- if PMC has anything but digits
		err_cat = ' ' .. seterror( 'bad_pmc' );			-- set an error message
	else												-- PMC is only digits
		local id_num = tonumber(id);					-- convert id to a number for range testing
		if 1 > id_num or test_limit < id_num then		-- if PMC is outside test limit boundaries
			err_cat = ' ' .. seterror( 'bad_pmc' );		-- set an error message
		end
	end
 
	if is_embargoed(embargo) then
		text="[[" .. handler.link .. "|" .. handler.label .. "]]:" .. handler.separator .. id .. err_cat;	--still embargoed so no external link
	else
		text = externallinkid({link = handler.link, label = handler.label,			--no embargo date, ok to link to article
			prefix=handler.prefix,id=id,separator=handler.separator, encode=handler.encode}) .. err_cat;
	end
	return text;
end
 
-- Formats a DOI and checks for DOI errors.
 
-- DOI names contain two parts: prefix and suffix separated by a forward slash.
--  Prefix: directory indicator '10.' followed by a registrant code
--  Suffix: character string of any length chosen by the registrant
 
-- This function checks a DOI name for: prefix/suffix.  If the doi name contains spaces or endashes,
-- or, if it ends with a period or a comma, this function will emit a bad_doi error message.
 
-- DOI names are case-insensitive and can incorporate any printable Unicode characters so the test for spaces, endash,
-- and terminal punctuation may not be technically correct but it appears, that in practice these characters are rarely if ever used in doi names.
 
function doi(id, inactive)
	local cat = ""
	local handler = cfg.id_handlers['DOI'];
 
	local text;
	if is_set(inactive) then
		local inactive_year = inactive:match("%d%d%d%d") or '';		-- try to get the year portion from the inactive date
		text = "[[" .. handler.link .. "|" .. handler.label .. "]]:" .. id;
		if is_set(inactive_year) then
			table.insert( z.error_categories, "Pages with DOIs inactive since " .. inactive_year );
		else
			table.insert( z.error_categories, "Pages with inactive DOIs" );	-- when inactive doesn't contain a recognizable year
		end
		inactive = " (" .. cfg.messages['inactive'] .. " " .. inactive .. ")" 
	else 
		text = externallinkid({link = handler.link, label = handler.label,
			prefix=handler.prefix,id=id,separator=handler.separator, encode=handler.encode})
		inactive = "" 
	end
 
	if nil == id:match("^10%.[^%s–]-/[^%s–]-[^%.,]$") then	-- doi must begin with '10.', must contain a fwd slash, must not contain spaces or endashes, and must not end with period or comma
		cat = ' ' .. seterror( 'bad_doi' );
	end
	return text .. inactive .. cat 
end
 
-- Formats an OpenLibrary link, and checks for associated errors.
function openlibrary(id)
	local code = id:match("^%d+([AMW])$");					-- only digits followed by 'A', 'M', or 'W'
	local handler = cfg.id_handlers['OL'];
 
	if ( code == "A" ) then
		return externallinkid({link=handler.link, label=handler.label,
			prefix="http://openlibrary.org/authors/OL",id=id, separator=handler.separator,
			encode = handler.encode})
	elseif ( code == "M" ) then
		return externallinkid({link=handler.link, label=handler.label,
			prefix="http://openlibrary.org/books/OL",id=id, separator=handler.separator,
			encode = handler.encode})
	elseif ( code == "W" ) then
		return externallinkid({link=handler.link, label=handler.label,
			prefix= "http://openlibrary.org/works/OL",id=id, separator=handler.separator,
			encode = handler.encode})
	else
		return externallinkid({link=handler.link, label=handler.label,
			prefix= "http://openlibrary.org/OL",id=id, separator=handler.separator,
			encode = handler.encode}) .. 
			' ' .. seterror( 'bad_ol' );
	end
end
 
--[[
Validate and format an issn.  This code fixes the case where an editor has included an ISSN in the citation but has separated the two groups of four
digits with a space.  When that condition occurred, the resulting link looked like this:
 
	|issn=0819 4327 gives: [http://www.worldcat.org/issn/0819 4327 0819 4327]  -- can't have spaces in an external link
 
This code now prevents that by inserting a hyphen at the issn midpoint.  It also validates the issn for length and makes sure that the checkdigit agrees
with the calculated value.  Incorrect length (8 digits), characters other than 0-9 and X, or checkdigit / calculated value mismatch will all cause a check issn
error message.  The issn is always displayed with a hyphen, even if the issn was given as a single group of 8 digits.
]]
function issn(id)
	local issn_copy = id;		-- save a copy of unadulterated issn; use this version for display if issn does not validate
	local handler = cfg.id_handlers['ISSN'];
	local text;
	local valid_issn = true;
 
	id=id:gsub( "[%s-–]", "" );									-- strip spaces, hyphens, and endashes from the issn
 
	if 8 ~= id:len() or nil == id:match( "^%d*X?$" ) then		-- validate the issn: 8 digits long, containing only 0-9 or X in the last position
		valid_issn=false;										-- wrong length or improper character
	else
		valid_issn=is_valid_isxn(id, 8);						-- validate issn
	end
 
	if true == valid_issn then
		id = string.sub( id, 1, 4 ) .. "-" .. string.sub( id, 5 );	-- if valid, display correctly formatted version
	else
		id = issn_copy;											-- if not valid, use the show the invalid issn with error message
	end
 
	text = externallinkid({link = handler.link, label = handler.label,
		prefix=handler.prefix,id=id,separator=handler.separator, encode=handler.encode})
 
	if false == valid_issn then
		text = text .. ' ' .. seterror( 'bad_issn' )			-- add an error message if the issn is invalid
	end 
 
	return text
end
 
--[[--------------------------< M E S S A G E _ I D >----------------------------------------------------------
 
Validate and format a usenet message id.  Simple error checking, looks for 'id-left@id-right' not enclosed in
'<' and/or '>' angle brackets.
 
]]
 
function message_id (id)
	local handler = cfg.id_handlers['USENETID'];
 
	text = externallinkid({link = handler.link, label = handler.label,
		prefix=handler.prefix,id=id,separator=handler.separator, encode=handler.encode})
 
	if not id:match('^.+@.+$') or not id:match('^[^<].*[^>]$')then				-- doesn't have '@' or has one or first or last character is '< or '>'
		text = text .. ' ' .. seterror( 'bad_message_id' )						-- add an error message if the message id is invalid
	end 
 
	return text
end
 
 
 
--[[--------------------------< S E T _ T I T L E T Y P E >----------------------------------------------------
 
This function sets default title types (equivalent to the citation including |type=<default value>) for those citations that have defaults.
Also handles the special case where it is desirable to omit the title type from the rendered citation (|type=none).
 
]]
function set_titletype(cite_class, title_type)
	if is_set(title_type) then
		if "none" == title_type then
			title_type = "";					-- if |type=none then type parameter not displayed
		end
		return title_type;						-- if |type= has been set to any other value use that value
	end
 
	if "AV-media-notes" == cite_class or "DVD-notes" == cite_class then		-- if this citation is cite AV media notes or cite DVD notes
		return "Media notes";					-- display AV media notes / DVD media notes annotation
 
	elseif "mailinglist" == cite_class then		-- if this citation is cite mailing list
		return "Mailing list";					-- display mailing list annotation
 
	elseif "podcast" == cite_class then			-- if this citation is cite podcast
		return "Podcast";						-- display podcast annotation
 
	elseif "pressrelease" == cite_class then	-- if this citation is cite press release
		return "Press release";					-- display press release annotation
 
	elseif "report" == cite_class then			-- if this citation is cite report
		return "Report";						-- display report annotation
 
	elseif "techreport" == cite_class then		-- if this citation is cite techreport
		return "Technical report";				-- display techreport annotation
 
	elseif "thesis" == cite_class then			-- if this citation is cite thesis (degree option handled after this function returns)
			return "Thesis";					-- display simple thesis annotation (without |degree= modification)
	end
end
 
--[[
Determines whether a URL string is valid
 
At present the only check is whether the string appears to 
be prefixed with a URI scheme.  It is not determined whether 
the URI scheme is valid or whether the URL is otherwise well 
formed.
]]
function checkurl( url_str )
	-- Protocol-relative or URL scheme
	return url_str:sub(1,2) == "//" or url_str:match( "^[^/]*:" ) ~= nil;
end
 
-- Removes irrelevant text and dashes from ISBN number
-- Similar to that used for Special:BookSources
function cleanisbn( isbn_str )
	return isbn_str:gsub( "[^-0-9X]", "" );
end
 
--[[--------------------------< E S C A P E _ L U A _ M A G I C _ C H A R S >----------------------------------
 
Returns a string where all of lua's magic characters have been escaped.  This is important because functions like
string.gsub() treat their pattern and replace strings as patterns, not literal strings.
]]
function escape_lua_magic_chars (argument)
	argument = argument:gsub("%%", "%%%%");										-- replace % with %%
	argument = argument:gsub("([%^%$%(%)%.%[%]%*%+%-%?])", "%%%1");				-- replace all other lua magic pattern characters
	return argument;
end
 
--[[--------------------------< S T R I P _ A P O S T R O P H E _ M A R K U P >--------------------------------
 
Strip wiki italic and bold markup from argument so that it doesn't contaminate COinS metadata.
This function strips common patterns of apostrophe markup.  We presume that editors who have taken the time to
markup a title have, as a result, provided valid markup. When they don't, some single apostrophes are left behind.
 
]]
function strip_apostrophe_markup (argument)
	if not is_set (argument) then return argument; end
 
	while true do
		if argument:match ("%'%'%'%'%'") then									-- bold italic (5)
			argument=argument:gsub("%'%'%'%'%'", "");							-- remove all instances of it
		elseif argument:match ("%'%'%'%'") then									-- italic start and end without content (4)
			argument=argument:gsub("%'%'%'%'", "");
		elseif argument:match ("%'%'%'") then									-- bold (3)
			argument=argument:gsub("%'%'%'", "");
		elseif argument:match ("%'%'") then										-- italic (2)
			argument=argument:gsub("%'%'", "");
		else
			break;
		end
	end
	return argument;															-- done
end
 
--[[--------------------------< M A K E _ C O I N S _ T I T L E >----------------------------------------------
 
Makes a title for COinS from Title and / or ScriptTitle (or any other name-script pairs)
 
Apostrophe markup (bold, italics) is stripped from each value so that the COinS metadata isn't correupted with strings
of %27%27...
]]
 
function make_coins_title (title, script)
	if is_set (title) then
		title = strip_apostrophe_markup (title);								-- strip any apostrophe markup
	else
		title='';																-- if not set, make sure title is an empty string
	end
	if is_set (script) then
		script = script:gsub ('^%l%l%s*:%s*', '');								-- remove language prefix if present (script value may now be empty string)
		script = strip_apostrophe_markup (script);								-- strip any apostrophe markup
	else
		script='';																-- if not set, make sure script is an empty string
	end
	if is_set (title) and is_set (script) then
		script = ' ' .. script;													-- add a space before we concatenate
	end
	return title .. script;														-- return the concatenation
end
 
--[[--------------------------< G E T _ C O I N S _ P A G E S >------------------------------------------------
 
Extract page numbers from external wikilinks in any of the |page=, |pages=, or |at= parameters for use in COinS.
 
]]
function get_coins_pages (pages)
	local pattern;
	if not is_set (pages) then return pages; end								-- if no page numbers then we're done
 
	while true do
		pattern = pages:match("%[(%w*:?//[^ ]+%s+)[%w%d].*%]");					-- pattern is the opening bracket, the url and following space(s): "[url "
		if nil == pattern then break; end										-- no more urls
		pattern = escape_lua_magic_chars (pattern);								-- pattern is not a literal string; escape lua's magic pattern characters
		pages = pages:gsub(pattern, "");										-- remove as many instances of pattern as possible
	end
	pages = pages:gsub("[%[%]]", "");											-- remove the brackets
	pages = pages:gsub("–", "-" );							-- replace endashes with hyphens
	pages = pages:gsub("&%w+;", "-" );						-- and replace html entities (&ndash; etc.) with hyphens; do we need to replace numerical entities like &#32; and the like?
	return pages;
end
 
--[[
ISBN-10 and ISSN validator code calculates checksum across all isbn/issn digits including the check digit. ISBN-13 is checked in checkisbn().
If the number is valid the result will be 0. Before calling this function, issbn/issn must be checked for length and stripped of dashes,
spaces and other non-isxn characters.
]]
function is_valid_isxn (isxn_str, len)
	local temp = 0;
	isxn_str = { isxn_str:byte(1, len) };	-- make a table of bytes
	len = len+1;							-- adjust to be a loop counter
	for i, v in ipairs( isxn_str ) do		-- loop through all of the bytes and calculate the checksum
		if v == string.byte( "X" ) then		-- if checkdigit is X
			temp = temp + 10*( len - i );	-- it represents 10 decimal
		else
			temp = temp + tonumber( string.char(v) )*(len-i);
		end
	end
	return temp % 11 == 0;					-- returns true if calculation result is zero
end
 
-- Determines whether an ISBN string is valid
function checkisbn( isbn_str )
	if nil ~= isbn_str:match("[^%s-0-9X]") then return false; end		-- fail if isbn_str contains anything but digits, hyphens, or the uppercase X
	isbn_str = isbn_str:gsub( "-", "" ):gsub( " ", "" );	-- remove hyphens and spaces
	local len = isbn_str:len();
 
	if len ~= 10 and len ~= 13 then
		return false;
	end
 
	if len == 10 then
		if isbn_str:match( "^%d*X?$" ) == nil then return false; end
		return is_valid_isxn(isbn_str, 10);
	else
		local temp = 0;
		if isbn_str:match( "^97[89]%d*$" ) == nil then return false; end	-- isbn13 begins with 978 or 979
		isbn_str = { isbn_str:byte(1, len) };
		for i, v in ipairs( isbn_str ) do
			temp = temp + (3 - 2*(i % 2)) * tonumber( string.char(v) );
		end
		return temp % 10 == 0;
	end
end
 
-- Gets the display text for a wikilink like [[A|B]] or [[B]] gives B
function removewikilink( str )
	return (str:gsub( "%[%[([^%[%]]*)%]%]", function(l)
		return l:gsub( "^[^|]*|(.*)$", "%1" ):gsub("^%s*(.-)%s*$", "%1");
	end));
end
 
-- Escape sequences for content that will be used for URL descriptions
function safeforurl( str )
	if str:match( "%[%[.-%]%]" ) ~= nil then 
		table.insert( z.message_tail, { seterror( 'wikilink_in_url', {}, true ) } );
	end
 
	return str:gsub( '[%[%]\n]', {	
		['['] = '&#91;',
		[']'] = '&#93;',
		['\n'] = ' ' } );
end
 
-- Converts a hyphen to a dash
function hyphentodash( str )
	if not is_set(str) or str:match( "[%[%]{}<>]" ) ~= nil then
		return str;
	end	
	return str:gsub( '-', '–' );
end
 
-- Protects a string that will be wrapped in wiki italic markup '' ... ''
function safeforitalics( str )
	--[[ Note: We cannot use <i> for italics, as the expected behavior for
	italics specified by ''...'' in the title is that they will be inverted
	(i.e. unitalicized) in the resulting references.  In addition, <i> and ''
	tend to interact poorly under Mediawiki's HTML tidy. ]]
 
	if not is_set(str) then
		return str;
	else
		if str:sub(1,1) == "'" then str = "<span />" .. str; end
		if str:sub(-1,-1) == "'" then str = str .. "<span />"; end
 
		-- Remove newlines as they break italics.
		return str:gsub( '\n', ' ' );
	end
end
 
--[[--------------------------< S A F E J O I N >--------------------------------------------------------------
 
Joins a sequence of strings together while checking for duplicate separation characters.
 
]]
function safejoin( tbl, duplicate_char )
	--[[
	Note: we use string functions here, rather than ustring functions.
 
	This has considerably faster performance and should work correctly as 
	long as the duplicate_char is strict ASCII.  The strings
	in tbl may be ASCII or UTF8.
	]]
 
	local str = '';																-- the output string
	local comp = '';															-- what does 'comp' mean?
	local end_chr = '';
	local trim;
	for _, value in ipairs( tbl ) do
		if value == nil then value = ''; end
 
		if str == '' then														-- if output string is empty
			str = value;														-- assign value to it (first time through the loop)
		elseif value ~= '' then
			if value:sub(1,1) == '<' then										-- Special case of values enclosed in spans and other markup.
				comp = value:gsub( "%b<>", "" );								-- remove html markup (<span>string</span> -> string)
			else
				comp = value;
			end
																				-- typically duplicate_char is sepc
			if comp:sub(1,1) == duplicate_char then								-- is first charactier same as duplicate_char? why test first character?
																				--   Because individual string segments often (always?) begin with terminal punct for th
																				--   preceding segment: 'First element' .. 'sepc next element' .. etc?
				trim = false;
				end_chr = str:sub(-1,-1);										-- get the last character of the output string
				-- str = str .. "<HERE(enchr=" .. end_chr.. ")"					-- debug stuff?
				if end_chr == duplicate_char then								-- if same as separator
					str = str:sub(1,-2);										-- remove it
				elseif end_chr == "'" then										-- if it might be wikimarkup
					if str:sub(-3,-1) == duplicate_char .. "''" then			-- if last three chars of str are sepc'' 
						str = str:sub(1, -4) .. "''";							-- remove them and add back ''
					elseif str:sub(-5,-1) == duplicate_char .. "]]''" then		-- if last five chars of str are sepc]]'' 
						trim = true;											-- why? why do this and next differently from previous?
					elseif str:sub(-4,-1) == duplicate_char .. "]''" then		-- if last four chars of str are sepc]'' 
						trim = true;											-- same question
					end
				elseif end_chr == "]" then										-- if it might be wikimarkup
					if str:sub(-3,-1) == duplicate_char .. "]]" then			-- if last three chars of str are sepc]] wikilink 
						trim = true;
					elseif str:sub(-2,-1) == duplicate_char .. "]" then			-- if last two chars of str are sepc] external link
						trim = true;
					elseif str:sub(-4,-1) == duplicate_char .. "'']" then		-- normal case when |url=something & |title=Title.
						trim = true;
					end
				elseif end_chr == " " then										-- if last char of output string is a space
					if str:sub(-2,-1) == duplicate_char .. " " then				-- if last two chars of str are <sepc><space>
						str = str:sub(1,-3);									-- remove them both
					end
				end
 
				if trim then
					if value ~= comp then 										-- value does not equal comp when value contains html markup
						local dup2 = duplicate_char;
						if dup2:match( "%A" ) then dup2 = "%" .. dup2; end		-- if duplicate_char not a letter then escape it
 
						value = value:gsub( "(%b<>)" .. dup2, "%1", 1 )			-- remove duplicate_char if it follows html markup
					else
						value = value:sub( 2, -1 );								-- remove duplicate_char when it is first character
					end
				end
			end
			str = str .. value;													--add it to the output string
		end
	end
	return str;
end  
 
-- Attempts to convert names to initials.
function reducetoinitials(first)
	local initials = {}
	local i = 0;										-- counter for number of initials
	for word in string.gmatch(first, "%S+") do
		table.insert(initials, string.sub(word,1,1))	-- Vancouver format does not include full stops.
		i = i + 1;										-- bump the counter 
		if 2 <= i then break; end						-- only two initials allowed in Vancouver system; if 2, quit
	end
	return table.concat(initials)						-- Vancouver format does not include spaces.
end
 
-- Formats a list of people (e.g. authors / editors) 
function listpeople(control, people)
	local sep;
	local namesep;
	local format = control.format
	local maximum = control.maximum
	local lastauthoramp = control.lastauthoramp;
	local text = {}
	local etal = false;
 
	if 'vanc' == format then													-- Vancouver-like author/editor name styling?
		sep = ',';																-- name-list separator between authors is a comma
		namesep = ' ';															-- last/first separator is a space
	else
		sep = ';'																-- name-list separator between authors is a semicolon
		namesep = ', '															-- last/first separator is <comma><space>
	end
 
	if sep:sub(-1,-1) ~= " " then sep = sep .. " " end
	if maximum ~= nil and maximum < 1 then return "", 0; end
 
	for i,person in ipairs(people) do
		if is_set(person.last) then
			local mask = person.mask
			local one
			local sep_one = sep;
			if maximum ~= nil and i > maximum then
				etal = true;
				break;
			elseif (mask ~= nil) then
				local n = tonumber(mask)
				if (n ~= nil) then
					one = string.rep("&mdash;",n)
				else
					one = mask;
					sep_one = " ";
				end
			else
				one = person.last
				local first = person.first
				if is_set(first) then 
					if ( "vanc" == format ) then first = reducetoinitials(first) end
					one = one .. namesep .. first 
				end
				if is_set(person.link) and person.link ~= control.page_name then
					one = "[[" .. person.link .. "|" .. one .. "]]"		-- link author/editor if this page is not the author's/editor's page
				end
 
				if is_set(person.link) and ((nil ~= person.link:find("//")) or (nil ~= person.link:find("[%[%]]"))) then
					one = one .. " " .. seterror( 'bad_authorlink' ) end	-- url or wikilink in author link;
			end
			table.insert( text, one )
			table.insert( text, sep_one )
		end
	end
 
	local count = #text / 2;
	if count > 0 then 
		if count > 1 and is_set(lastauthoramp) and not etal then
			text[#text-2] = " & ";
		end
		text[#text] = nil; 
	end
 
	local result = table.concat(text) -- construct list
	if etal then 
		local etal_text = cfg.messages['et al'];
		result = result .. " " .. etal_text;
	end
 
	return result, count
end
 
--[[--------------------------< A N C H O R I D >--------------------------------------------------------------
Generates a CITEREF anchor ID if we have at least one name or a date.  Otherwise returns an empty string.
 
]]
 
function anchorid( options )
	local id = table.concat( options );											-- concatenate names and year for CITEREF id
	if is_set (id) then															-- if concatenation is not an empty string
		return "CITEREF" .. id;													-- add the CITEREF portion
	else
		return '';																-- return an empty string; no reason to include CITEREF id in this citation
	end
end
 
--[[
Gets name list from the input arguments
 
Searches through args in sequential order to find |lastn= and |firstn= parameters (or their aliases), and their matching link and mask parameters.
Stops searching when both |lastn= and |firstn= are not found in args after two sequential attempts: found |last1=, |last2=, and |last3= but doesn't
find |last4= and |last5= then the search is done.
 
This function emits an error message when there is a |firstn= without a matching |lastn=.  When there are 'holes' in the list of last names, |last1= and |last3=
are present but |last2= is missing, an error message is emitted. |lastn= is not required to have a matching |firstn=.
]]
function extractnames(args, list_name)
	local names = {};			-- table of names
	local last;					-- individual name components
	local first;
	local link;
	local mask;
	local i = 1;				-- loop counter/indexer
	local n = 1;				-- output table indexer
	local count = 0;			-- used to count the number of times we haven't found a |last= (or alias for authors, |editor-last or alias for editors)
 
	local err_msg_list_name = list_name:match ("(%w+)List") .. 's list';		-- modify AuthorList or EditorList for use in error messages if necessary
 
	while true do
		last = selectone( args, cfg.aliases[list_name .. '-Last'], 'redundant_parameters', i );		-- search through args for name components beginning at 1
		first = selectone( args, cfg.aliases[list_name .. '-First'], 'redundant_parameters', i );
		link = selectone( args, cfg.aliases[list_name .. '-Link'], 'redundant_parameters', i );
		mask = selectone( args, cfg.aliases[list_name .. '-Mask'], 'redundant_parameters', i );
 
		if first and not last then												-- if there is a firstn without a matching lastn
			table.insert( z.message_tail, { seterror( 'first_missing_last', {err_msg_list_name, i}, true ) } );	-- add this error message
		elseif not first and not last then										-- if both firstn and lastn aren't found, are we done?
			count = count + 1;													-- number of times we haven't found last and first
			if 2 == count then													-- two missing names and we give up
				break;															-- normal exit or there is a two-name hole in the list; can't tell which
			end
		else																	-- we have last with or without a first
			names[n] = {last = last, first = first, link = link, mask = mask};	-- add this name to our names list
			n = n + 1;															-- point to next location in the names table
			if 1 == count then													-- if the previous name was missing
				table.insert( z.message_tail, { seterror( 'missing_name', {err_msg_list_name, i-1}, true ) } );		-- add this error message
			end
			count = 0;															-- reset the counter, we're looking for two consecutive missing names
		end
		i = i + 1;																-- point to next args location
	end
	return names;																-- all done, return our list of names
end
 
-- Populates ID table from arguments using configuration settings
function extractids( args )
	local id_list = {};
	for k, v in pairs( cfg.id_handlers ) do	
		v = selectone( args, v.parameters, 'redundant_parameters' );
		if is_set(v) then id_list[k] = v; end
	end
	return id_list;
end
 
--[[--------------------------< B U I L D I D L I S T >--------------------------------------------------------
Takes a table of IDs and turns it into a table of formatted ID outputs.
 
]]
function buildidlist( id_list, options )
	local new_list, handler = {};
 
	function fallback(k) return { __index = function(t,i) return cfg.id_handlers[k][i] end } end;
 
	for k, v in pairs( id_list ) do
		-- fallback to read-only cfg
		handler = setmetatable( { ['id'] = v }, fallback(k) );
 
		if handler.mode == 'external' then
			table.insert( new_list, {handler.label, externallinkid( handler ) } );
		elseif handler.mode == 'internal' then
			table.insert( new_list, {handler.label, internallinkid( handler ) } );
		elseif handler.mode ~= 'manual' then
			error( cfg.messages['unknown_ID_mode'] );
		elseif k == 'DOI' then
			table.insert( new_list, {handler.label, doi( v, options.DoiBroken ) } );
		elseif k == 'ARXIV' then
			table.insert( new_list, {handler.label, arxiv( v ) } ); 
		elseif k == 'ASIN' then
			table.insert( new_list, {handler.label, amazon( v, options.ASINTLD ) } ); 
		elseif k == 'LCCN' then
			table.insert( new_list, {handler.label, lccn( v ) } );
		elseif k == 'OL' then
			table.insert( new_list, {handler.label, openlibrary( v ) } );
		elseif k == 'PMC' then
			table.insert( new_list, {handler.label, pmc( v, options.Embargo ) } );
		elseif k == 'PMID' then
			table.insert( new_list, {handler.label, pmid( v ) } );
		elseif k == 'ISSN' then
			table.insert( new_list, {handler.label, issn( v ) } );
		elseif k == 'ISBN' then
			local ISBN = internallinkid( handler );
			if not checkisbn( v ) and not is_set(options.IgnoreISBN) then
				ISBN = ISBN .. seterror( 'bad_isbn', {}, false, " ", "" );
			end
			table.insert( new_list, {handler.label, ISBN } );				
		elseif k == 'USENETID' then
			table.insert( new_list, {handler.label, message_id( v ) } );
		else
			error( cfg.messages['unknown_manual_ID'] );
		end
	end
 
	function comp( a, b )	-- used in following table.sort()
		return a[1] < b[1];
	end
 
	table.sort( new_list, comp );
	for k, v in ipairs( new_list ) do
		new_list[k] = v[2];
	end
 
	return new_list;
end
 
-- Chooses one matching parameter from a list of parameters to consider
-- Generates an error if more than one match is present.
function selectone( args, possible, error_condition, index )
	local value = nil;
	local selected = '';
	local error_list = {};
 
	if index ~= nil then index = tostring(index); end
 
	-- Handle special case of "#" replaced by empty string
	if index == '1' then
		for _, v in ipairs( possible ) do
			v = v:gsub( "#", "" );
			if is_set(args[v]) then
				if value ~= nil and selected ~= v then
					table.insert( error_list, v );
				else
					value = args[v];
					selected = v;
				end
			end
		end		
	end
 
	for _, v in ipairs( possible ) do
		if index ~= nil then
			v = v:gsub( "#", index );
		end
		if is_set(args[v]) then
			if value ~= nil and selected ~=  v then
				table.insert( error_list, v );
			else
				value = args[v];
				selected = v;
			end
		end
	end
 
	if #error_list > 0 then
		local error_str = "";
		for _, k in ipairs( error_list ) do
			if error_str ~= "" then error_str = error_str .. cfg.messages['parameter-separator'] end
			error_str = error_str .. wrap_style ('parameter', k);
		end
		if #error_list > 1 then
			error_str = error_str .. cfg.messages['parameter-final-separator'];
		else
			error_str = error_str .. cfg.messages['parameter-pair-separator'];
		end
		error_str = error_str .. wrap_style ('parameter', selected);
		table.insert( z.message_tail, { seterror( error_condition, {error_str}, true ) } );
	end
 
	return value, selected;
end
 
-- COinS metadata (see <http://ocoins.info/>) allows automated tools to parse
-- the citation information.
function COinS(data)
	if 'table' ~= type(data) or nil == next(data) then
		return '';
	end
 
	local ctx_ver = "Z39.88-2004";
 
	-- treat table strictly as an array with only set values.
	local OCinSoutput = setmetatable( {}, {
		__newindex = function(self, key, value)
			if is_set(value) then
				rawset( self, #self+1, table.concat{ key, '=', mw.uri.encode( removewikilink( value ) ) } );
			end
		end
	});
 
	if is_set(data.Chapter) then
		OCinSoutput.rft_val_fmt = "info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:book";
		OCinSoutput["rft.genre"] = "bookitem";
		OCinSoutput["rft.atitle"] = data.Chapter;
		OCinSoutput["rft.btitle"] = data.Title;
	elseif is_set(data.Periodical) then
		OCinSoutput.rft_val_fmt = "info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:journal";
		OCinSoutput["rft.genre"] = "article";
		OCinSoutput["rft.jtitle"] = data.Periodical;
		OCinSoutput["rft.atitle"] = data.Title;
	else
		OCinSoutput.rft_val_fmt = "info:ofi/fmt:kev:mtx:book";
		OCinSoutput["rft.genre"] = "book"
		OCinSoutput["rft.btitle"] = data.Title;
	end
 
	OCinSoutput["rft.place"] = data.PublicationPlace;
	OCinSoutput["rft.date"] = data.Date;
	OCinSoutput["rft.series"] = data.Series;
	OCinSoutput["rft.volume"] = data.Volume;
	OCinSoutput["rft.issue"] = data.Issue;
	OCinSoutput["rft.pages"] = data.Pages;
	OCinSoutput["rft.edition"] = data.Edition;
	OCinSoutput["rft.pub"] = data.PublisherName;
 
	for k, v in pairs( data.ID_list ) do
		local id, value = cfg.id_handlers[k].COinS;
		if k == 'ISBN' then value = cleanisbn( v ); else value = v; end
		if string.sub( id or "", 1, 4 ) == 'info' then
			OCinSoutput["rft_id"] = table.concat{ id, "/", v };
		else
			OCinSoutput[ id ] = value;
		end
	end
 
	local last, first;
	for k, v in ipairs( data.Authors ) do
		last, first = v.last, v.first;
		if k == 1 then
			if is_set(last) then
				OCinSoutput["rft.aulast"] = last;
			end
			if is_set(first) then 
				OCinSoutput["rft.aufirst"] = first;
			end
		end
		if is_set(last) and is_set(first) then
			OCinSoutput["rft.au"] = table.concat{ last, ", ", first };
		elseif is_set(last) then
			OCinSoutput["rft.au"] = last;
		end
	end
 
	OCinSoutput.rft_id = data.URL;
	OCinSoutput.rfr_id = table.concat{ "info:sid/", mw.site.server:match( "[^/]*$" ), ":", data.RawPage };
	OCinSoutput = setmetatable( OCinSoutput, nil );
 
	-- sort with version string always first, and combine.
	table.sort( OCinSoutput );
	table.insert( OCinSoutput, 1, "ctx_ver=" .. ctx_ver );  -- such as "Z39.88-2004"
	return table.concat(OCinSoutput, "&");
end
 
 
--[[--------------------------< G E T _ I S O 6 3 9 _ C O D E >------------------------------------------------
 
Validates language names provided in |language= parameter if not an ISO639-1 code.  Handles the special case that is Norwegian where
ISO639-1 code 'no' is mapped to language name 'Norwegian Bokmål' by Extention:CLDR.
 
Returns the language name and associated ISO639-1 code.  Because case of the source may be incorrect or different from the case that Wikimedia
uses, the name comparisons are done in lower case and when a match is found, the Wikimedia version (assumed to be correct) is returned along
with the code.  When there is no match, we return the original language name string.
 
mw.language.fetchLanguageNames() will return a list of languages that aren't part of ISO639-1. Names that aren't ISO639-1 but that are included
in the list will be found if that name is provided in the |language= parameter.  For example, if |language=Samaritan Aramaic, that name will be
found with the associated code 'sam', not an ISO639-1 code.  When names are found and the associated code is not two characters, this function
returns only the Wikimedia language name.
 
Adapted from code taken from Module:Check ISO 639-1.
]]
 
function get_iso639_code (lang)
	if 'norveški' == lang:lower() then											-- special case related to Wikimedia remap of code 'no' at Extension:CLDR
		return 'Norveški', 'no';												-- Make sure rendered version is properly capitalized
	end
 
	local languages = mw.language.fetchLanguageNames('bs', 'all')				-- get a list of language names known to Wikimedia
																				-- ('all' is required for North Ndebele, South Ndebele, and Ojibwa)
	local langlc = mw.ustring.lower(lang);										-- lower case version for comparisons
 
	for code, name in pairs(languages) do										-- scan the list to see if we can find our language
		if langlc == mw.ustring.lower(name) then
			if 2 ~= code:len() then												-- ISO639-1 codes only
				return name;													-- so return the name but not the code
			end
			return name, code;													-- found it, return name to ensure proper capitalization and the ISO639-1 code
		end
	end
	return lang;																-- not valid language; return language in original case and nil for ISO639-1 code
end
 
--[[--------------------------< L A N G U A G E _ P A R A M E T E R >------------------------------------------
 
Get language name from ISO639-1 code value provided.  If a code is valid use the returned name; if not, then use the value that was provided with the language parameter.
 
There is an exception.  There are three ISO639-1 codes for Norewegian language variants.  There are two official variants: Norwegian Bokmål (code 'nb') and
Norwegian Nynorsk (code 'nn').  The third, code 'no',  is defined by ISO639-1 as 'Norwegian' though in Norway this is pretty much meaningless.  However, it appears
that on enwiki, editors are for the most part unaware of the nb and nn variants (compare page counts for these variants at Category:Articles with non-English-language external links.
 
Because Norwegian Bokmål is the most common language variant, Media wiki has been modified to return Norwegian Bokmål for ISO639-1 code 'no'. Here we undo that and
return 'Norwegian' when editors use |language=no.  We presume that editors don't know about the variants or can't descriminate between them.
 
See Help talk:Citation Style_1#An ISO 639-1 language name test
 
When |language= contains a valid ISO639-1 code, the page is assigned to the category for that code: Category:Norwegian-language sources (no) if
the page is a mainspace page and the ISO639-1 code is not 'en'.  Similarly, if the  parameter is |language=Norwegian, it will be categorized in the same way.
 
]]
 
function language_parameter (lang, namespace)
	local code;			-- the ISO639-1 two character code
	local name;			-- the language name
	local test='';
 
	if 0 == namespace and (('bs' == lang:lower()) or ('bosanski' == lang:lower())) then
		table.insert (z.maintenance_cats, 'CS1 održavanje: Naveden bosanski jezik');		-- add maintenance category if |language=Bosnian or |language=bs in article space
	end
 
	if 2 == lang:len() then														-- ISO639-1 language code are 2 characters (fetchLanguageName also supports 3 character codes)
		name = mw.language.fetchLanguageName( lang:lower(), "bs" );				-- get ISO 639-1 language name if Language is a proper code
	end
 
	if is_set (name) then														-- if Language specified a valid ISO639-1 code
		code = lang:lower();													-- save it
	else
		name, code = get_iso639_code (lang);									-- attempt to get code from name (assign name here so that we are sure of proper capitalization)
	end
 
	if is_set (code) then
		if 'no' == code then name = 'Norveški' end;							-- override wikimedia when code is 'no'
		if 0 == namespace and 'bs' ~= code then									-- is this page main / article space and Bosnian not the language?
			table.insert( z.properties_cats, 'CS1 upotrebe (' .. name .. ')');	-- in main space and not English: categorize
		end
	else
		table.insert (z.maintenance_cats, 'CS1 održavanje: Nepoznati jezik');	-- add maintenance category when |language= does not appear to be ISO 639-1 language
	end
	return (" " .. wrap_msg ('language', name));								-- wrap with '(in ...)'
end
 
--[[--------------------------< G E T _ S E T T I N G S _ F R O M _ C I T E _ C L A S S >----------------------
When |mode= is not set or when its value is invalid, use config.CitationClass and parameter values to establish
rendered style.
 
]]
 
function get_settings_from_cite_class (ps, ref, cite_class)
local sep;
	if (cite_class == "citation") then											-- for citation templates (CS2)
		sep = ',';																-- set citation separator to its default (comma)
		if not is_set (ps) then													-- if |postscript= has not been set, set cs2 default
			ps = '';															-- make sure it isn't nil
		end
		if not is_set (ref) then												-- if |ref= is not set
			ref = "harv";														-- set default |ref=harv
		end
	else																		-- not a citation template so CS1
		sep = '.';																-- set cite xxx separator to its default (period)
		if not is_set (ps) then													-- if |postscript= has not been set
			ps = '.';															-- set cs1 default
		end
	end
 
	return sep, ps, ref															-- return them all
end
 
--[[--------------------------< S E T _ S T Y L E >------------------------------------------------------------
 
Establish basic style settings to be used when rendering the citation.  Uses |mode= if set and valid or uses
config.CitationClass from the template's #invoke: to establish style.
 
]]
 
function set_style (mode, ps, ref, cite_class)
local sep;
	if is_set (mode) then
		if 'cs2' == mode then											-- if this template is to be rendered in CS2 (citation) style
			sep = ',';															-- separate elements with a comma
			if not is_set (ps) then												-- unless explicitely set to something
				ps = '';														-- make sure it isn't nil
			end
			if not is_set (ref) then											-- unless explicitely set to something
				ref = 'harv';													-- set so this template renders with CITEREF anchor id
			end
		elseif 'cs1' == mode then										-- if this template is to be rendered in CS1 (cite xxx) style
			sep = '.';															-- separate elements with a period
			if not is_set (ps) then												-- unless explicitely set to something
				ps = '.';														-- terminate the rendered citation with a period
			end
		else																	-- anything but cs1 or cs2
			table.insert( z.message_tail, { seterror( 'invalid_param_val', {'mode', mode}, true ) } );		-- add error message
			sep, ps, ref = get_settings_from_cite_class (ps, ref, cite_class);	-- get settings based on the template's CitationClass
		end
	else													-- when |mode= empty or omitted
		sep, ps, ref = get_settings_from_cite_class (ps, ref, cite_class);		-- get settings based on the template's CitationClass
	end
	if 'none' == ps:lower() then												-- if assigned value is 'none' then
		ps = '';																-- set to empty string
	end
 
	return sep, ps, ref
end
 
 
--[[--------------------------< C I T A T I O N 0 >------------------------------------------------------------
This is the main function doing the majority of the citation
formatting.
]]
function citation0( config, args)
	--[[ 
	Load Input Parameters
	The argument_wrapper facilitates the mapping of multiple
	aliases to single internal variable.
	]]
	local A = argument_wrapper( args );
 
	local i 
	local PPrefix = A['PPrefix']
	local PPPrefix = A['PPPrefix']
	if is_set( A['NoPP'] ) then PPPrefix = "" PPrefix = "" end
 
	-- Pick out the relevant fields from the arguments.  Different citation templates
	-- define different field names for the same underlying things.	
	local Authors = A['Authors'];
	local a = extractnames( args, 'AuthorList' );
 
	local Coauthors = A['Coauthors'];
	local Others = A['Others'];
	local Editors = A['Editors'];
	local e = extractnames( args, 'EditorList' );
 
	local NameListFormat = A['NameListFormat'];									-- replaces |author-format= and |editor-format=
	if is_set (NameListFormat) and ('vanc' ~= NameListFormat) then											-- only accepted value for this parameter is 'vanc'
		table.insert( z.message_tail, { seterror( 'invalid_param_val', {'name-list-format', NameListFormat}, true ) } );	-- not vanc so add error message
		NameListFormat = '';													-- set to empty string
	end
 
	local Year = A['Year'];
	local PublicationDate = A['PublicationDate'];
	local OrigYear = A['OrigYear'];
	local Date = A['Date'];
	local LayDate = A['LayDate'];
	------------------------------------------------- Get title data
	local Title = A['Title'];
	local ScriptTitle = A['ScriptTitle'];
	local BookTitle = A['BookTitle'];
	local Conference = A['Conference'];
	local TransTitle = A['TransTitle'];
	local TitleNote = A['TitleNote'];
	local TitleLink = A['TitleLink'];
	local Chapter = A['Chapter'];
	local ChapterLink = A['ChapterLink'];										-- deprecated
	local TransChapter = A['TransChapter'];
	local TitleType = A['TitleType'];
	local Degree = A['Degree'];
	local Docket = A['Docket'];
	local ArchiveURL = A['ArchiveURL'];
	local URL = A['URL']
	local URLorigin = A:ORIGIN('URL');											-- get name of parameter that holds URL
	local ChapterURL = A['ChapterURL'];
	local ChapterURLorigin = A:ORIGIN('ChapterURL');							-- get name of parameter that holds ChapterURL
	local ConferenceURL = A['ConferenceURL'];
	local ConferenceURLorigin = A:ORIGIN('ConferenceURL');						-- get name of parameter that holds ConferenceURL
	local Periodical = A['Periodical'];
 
	local Series = A['Series'];
	local Volume = A['Volume'];
	local Issue = A['Issue'];
	local Position = '';
	local Page = A['Page'];
	local Pages = hyphentodash( A['Pages'] );	
	local At = A['At'];
 
	local Edition = A['Edition'];
	local PublicationPlace = A['PublicationPlace']
	local Place = A['Place'];
 
	local PublisherName = A['PublisherName'];
	local RegistrationRequired = A['RegistrationRequired'];
	local SubscriptionRequired = A['SubscriptionRequired'];
	local Via = A['Via'];
	local AccessDate = A['AccessDate'];
	local ArchiveDate = A['ArchiveDate'];
	local Agency = A['Agency'];
	local DeadURL = A['DeadURL']
	local Language = A['Language'];
	local Format = A['Format'];
	local ChapterFormat = A['ChapterFormat'];
	local DoiBroken = A['DoiBroken'];
	local ID = A['ID'];
	local ASINTLD = A['ASINTLD'];
	local IgnoreISBN = A['IgnoreISBN'];
	local Embargo = A['Embargo'];
 
	local ID_list = extractids( args );
 
	local Quote = A['Quote'];
 
	local LayURL = A['LayURL'];
	local LaySource = A['LaySource'];
	local Transcript = A['Transcript'];
	local TranscriptURL = A['TranscriptURL'] 
	local TranscriptURLorigin = A:ORIGIN('TranscriptURL');						-- get name of parameter that holds TranscriptURL
 
	local LastAuthorAmp = A['LastAuthorAmp'];
	local no_tracking_cats = A['NoTracking'];
 
--these are used by cite interview
	local Callsign = A['Callsign'];
	local City = A['City'];
	local Program = A['Program'];
 
--local variables that are not cs1 parameters
	local use_lowercase;								-- controls capitalization of certain static text
	local this_page = mw.title.getCurrentTitle();		-- also used for COinS and for language
	local anchor_year;									-- used in the CITEREF identifier
	local COinS_date;									-- used in the COinS metadata
 
-- set default parameter values defined by |mode= parameter.  If |mode= is empty or omitted, use CitationClass to set these values
	local sepc;											-- separator between citation elements for CS1 a period, for CS2, a comma
	local PostScript;
	local Ref;
	sepc, PostScript, Ref = set_style (A['Mode']:lower(), A['PostScript'], A['Ref'], config.CitationClass);
	use_lowercase = ( sepc == ',' );					-- used to control capitalization for certain static text
 
--check this page to see if it is in one of the namespaces that cs1 is not supposed to add to the error categories.
	if not is_set(no_tracking_cats) then				-- ignore if we are already not going to categorize this page
		if inArray (this_page.nsText, cfg.uncategorized_namespaces) then
			no_tracking_cats = "true";					-- set no_tracking_cats
		end
	end
 
-- check for extra |page=, |pages= or |at= parameters. 
	if is_set(Page) then
		if is_set(Pages) or is_set(At) then
			Page = Page .. " " .. seterror('extra_pages');	-- add error message
			Pages = '';										-- unset the others
			At = '';
		end
	elseif is_set(Pages) then
		if is_set(At) then
			Pages = Pages .. " " .. seterror('extra_pages');	-- add error messages
			At = '';											-- unset
		end
	end	
 
-- both |publication-place= and |place= (|location=) allowed if different
	if not is_set(PublicationPlace) and is_set(Place) then
		PublicationPlace = Place;							-- promote |place= (|location=) to |publication-place
	end
 
	if PublicationPlace == Place then Place = ''; end		-- don't need both if they are the same
 
--[[
Parameter remapping for cite encyclopedia:
When the citation has these parameters:
	|encyclopedia and |title then map |title to |article and |encyclopedia to |title
	|encyclopedia and |article then map |encyclopedia to |title
	|encyclopedia then map |encyclopedia to |title
 
	|trans_title maps to |trans_chapter when |title is re-mapped
	|url maps to |chapterurl when |title is remapped
 
All other combinations of |encyclopedia, |title, and |article are not modified
TODO: script-title to script-chapter if and when we support script-chapter
]]
 
local Encyclopedia = A['Encyclopedia'];
 
	if ( config.CitationClass == "encyclopaedia" ) or ( config.CitationClass == "citation" and is_set (Encyclopedia)) then	-- test code for citation
		if is_set(Periodical) then					-- Periodical is set when |encyclopedia is set
			if is_set(Title) then
				if not is_set(Chapter) then
					Chapter = Title;				-- |encyclopedia and |title are set so map |title to |article and |encyclopedia to |title
					TransChapter = TransTitle;
					ChapterURL = URL;
					Title = Periodical;
					ChapterFormat = Format;
					Periodical = '';				-- redundant so unset
					TransTitle = '';				-- redundant so unset
					URL = '';						-- redundant so unset
					Format = '';					-- redundant so unset
				end
			else									-- |title not set
				Title = Periodical;					-- |encyclopedia set and |article set or not set so map |encyclopedia to |title
				Periodical = '';					-- redundant so unset
			end
		end
	end
 
-- Special case for cite techreport.
	if (config.CitationClass == "techreport") then	-- special case for cite techreport
		if is_set(Issue) then						-- cite techreport uses 'number', which other citations aliase to 'issue'
			if not is_set(ID) then					-- can we use ID for the "number"?
				ID = Issue;							-- yes, use it
				Issue = "";							-- unset Issue so that "number" isn't duplicated in the rendered citation or COinS metadata
			else									-- can't use ID so emit error message
				ID = ID .. " " .. seterror('redundant_parameters', '<code>&#124;id=</code> and <code>&#124;number=</code>');
			end
		end	
	end
 
-- special case for cite interview
	if (config.CitationClass == "interview") then
		if is_set(Program) then
			ID = ' ' .. Program;
		end
		if is_set(Callsign) then
			if is_set(ID) then
				ID = ID .. sepc .. ' ' .. Callsign;
			else
				ID = ' ' .. Callsign;
			end
		end
		if is_set(City) then
			if is_set(ID) then
				ID = ID .. sepc .. ' ' .. City;
			else
				ID = ' ' .. City;
			end
		end
 
		if is_set(Others) then
			if is_set(TitleType) then
				Others = ' ' .. TitleType .. ' with ' .. Others;
				TitleType = '';
			else
				Others = ' ' .. 'Interview with ' .. Others;
			end
		else
			Others = '(Interview)';
		end
	end
 
-- special case for cite mailing list
	if (config.CitationClass == "mailinglist") then
		Periodical = A ['MailingList'];
	end
 
--Account for the oddity that is {{cite journal}} with |pmc= set and |url= not set
	if config.CitationClass == "journal" and not is_set(URL) and is_set(ID_list['PMC']) then
		if not is_embargoed(Embargo) then
			URL=cfg.id_handlers['PMC'].prefix .. ID_list['PMC'];	-- set url to be the same as the PMC external link if not embargoed
			URLorigin = cfg.id_handlers['PMC'].parameters[1];		-- set URLorigin to parameter name for use in error message if citation is missing a |title=
		end
	end
 
-- Account for the oddity that is {{cite conference}}, before generation of COinS data.
	if 'conference' == config.CitationClass then
		if is_set(BookTitle) then
			Chapter = Title;
--			ChapterLink = TitleLink;											-- |chapterlink= is deprecated
			ChapterURL = URL;
			ChapterURLorigin = URLorigin;
			URLorigin = '';
			ChapterFormat = Format;
			TransChapter = TransTitle;
			Title = BookTitle;
			Format = '';
--			TitleLink = '';
			TransTitle = '';
			URL = '';
		end
	else
		Conference = '';														-- not cite conference so make sure this is empty string
	end
 
-- Account for the oddity that is {{cite episode}}, before generation of COinS data.
--[[	-- {{cite episode}} is not currently supported by this module
	if config.CitationClass == "episode" then
		local AirDate = A['AirDate'];
		local SeriesLink = A['SeriesLink'];
		local Season = A['Season'];
		local SeriesNumber = A['SeriesNumber'];
		local Network = A['Network'];
		local Station = A['Station'];
		local s, n = {}, {};
		local Sep = (first_set(A["SeriesSeparator"], A["Separator"]) or "") .. " ";
 
		if is_set(Issue) then table.insert(s, cfg.messages["episode"] .. " " .. Issue); Issue = ''; end
		if is_set(Season) then table.insert(s, cfg.messages["season"] .. " " .. Season); end
		if is_set(SeriesNumber) then table.insert(s, cfg.messages["series"] .. " " .. SeriesNumber); end
		if is_set(Network) then table.insert(n, Network); end
		if is_set(Station) then table.insert(n, Station); end
 
		Date = Date or AirDate;
		Chapter = Title;
		ChapterLink = TitleLink;
		TransChapter = TransTitle;
		Title = Series;
		TitleLink = SeriesLink;
		TransTitle = '';
 
		Series = table.concat(s, Sep);
		ID = table.concat(n, Sep);
	end
-- end of {{cite episode}} stuff]]
 
-- legacy: promote concatenation of |month=, and |year= to Date if Date not set; or, promote PublicationDate to Date if neither Date nor Year are set.
	if is_set(Date) then
		if is_set (Year) then
			table.insert( z.maintenance_cats, "CS1 održavanje: Datum i godina");		-- add to maint category
		end
	else
		Date = Year;						-- promote Year to Date
		Year = nil;							-- make nil so Year as empty string isn't used for CITEREF
		if is_set(Date) then
			local Month = A['Month'];
			if is_set(Month) then
				Date = Month .. " " .. Date;
			end
		elseif is_set(PublicationDate) then	-- use PublicationDate when |date= and |year= are not set
			Date = PublicationDate;			-- promote PublicationDate to Date
			PublicationDate = '';			-- unset, no longer needed
		end
	end
 
	if PublicationDate == Date then PublicationDate = ''; end	-- if PublicationDate is same as Date, don't display in rendered citation
 
 
--[[
Go test all of the date-holding parameters for valid MOS:DATE format and make sure that dates are real dates. This must be done before we do COinS because here is where
we get the date used in the metadata.
 
Date validation supporting code is in Module:Citation/CS1/Date_validation
]]
	anchor_year, COinS_date, error_message = dates({['accessdate']=AccessDate, ['airdate']=AirDate, ['archivedate']=ArchiveDate, ['date']=Date, ['doi_brokendate']=DoiBroken,
		['embargo']=Embargo, ['laydate']=LayDate, ['publicationdate']=PublicationDate, ['year']=Year});
	if is_set(error_message) then
		table.insert( z.message_tail, { seterror( 'bad_date', {error_message}, true ) } );	-- add this error message
	end
 
-- At this point fields may be nil if they weren't specified in the template use.  We can use that fact.
	-- Test if citation has no title
	if	not is_set(Title) and
--		not is_set(Periodical) and			-- not a title
--		not is_set(Conference) and			-- not a title
		not is_set(TransTitle) and
		not is_set(ScriptTitle) then
		table.insert( z.message_tail, { seterror( 'citation_missing_title', {}, true ) } );
	end
 
	if 'none' == Title and is_set(Periodical) and not (( config.CitationClass == "encyclopaedia" ) or ( config.CitationClass == "citation" and is_set (Encyclopedia))) then								-- special case
		Title = '';																-- set title to empty string
		table.insert( z.maintenance_cats, "CS1 održavanje: Neimenovani časopis");	-- add to maint category
	end
 
	-- COinS metadata (see <http://ocoins.info/>) for automated parsing of citation information.
	-- handle the oddity that is cite encyclopedia and {{citation |encyclopedia=something}}. Here we presume that
	-- when Periodical, Title, and Chapter are all set, then Periodical is the book (encyclopedia) title, Title
	-- is the article title, and Chapter is a section within the article.  So, we remap 
 
	local coins_chapter = Chapter;												-- default assuming that remapping not required
	local coins_title = Title;													-- et tu
	if 'encyclopaedia' == config.CitationClass or ('citation' == config.CitationClass and is_set (Encyclopedia)) then
		if is_set (Chapter) and is_set (Title) and is_set (Periodical) then		-- if all are used then
			coins_chapter = Title;												-- remap
			coins_title = Periodical;
		end
	end
 
	-- this is the function call to COinS()
	local OCinSoutput = COinS{
		['Periodical'] = Periodical,
		['Chapter'] = strip_apostrophe_markup (coins_chapter),					-- Chapter stripped of bold / italic wikimarkup
		['Title'] = make_coins_title (coins_title, ScriptTitle),				-- Title and ScriptTitle stripped of bold / italic wikimarkup
		['PublicationPlace'] = PublicationPlace,
		['Date'] = first_set(COinS_date, Date),		-- COinS_date has correctly formatted date if Date is valid; any reason to keep Date here?  Should we be including invalid dates in metadata?
		['Series'] = Series,
		['Volume'] = Volume,
		['Issue'] = Issue,
		['Pages'] = get_coins_pages (first_set(Page, Pages, At)),				-- pages stripped of external links
		['Edition'] = Edition,
		['PublisherName'] = PublisherName,
		['URL'] = first_set( URL, ChapterURL ),
		['Authors'] = a,
		['ID_list'] = ID_list,
		['RawPage'] = this_page.prefixedText,
	};
--[[Why is this here?  Why are we mapping Title to Chapter when Periodical is set?
	if is_set(Periodical) and not is_set(Chapter) and is_set(Title) then
		Chapter = Title;
		ChapterLink = TitleLink;
		TransChapter = TransTitle;
		Title = '';
		TitleLink = '';
		TransTitle = '';
	end
]]
 
-- special case for cite newsgroup.  Do this after COinS because we are modifying Publishername to include some static text
	if 'newsgroup' == config.CitationClass then
		if is_set (PublisherName) then
			PublisherName = '[[Newsgroup]]:&nbsp;' ..  externallink( 'news:' .. PublisherName, PublisherName );
		end
	end
 
 
 
	-- Now perform various field substitutions.
	-- We also add leading spaces and surrounding markup and punctuation to the
	-- various parts of the citation, but only when they are non-nil.
	if not is_set(Authors) then
		local Maximum = tonumber( A['DisplayAuthors'] );
 
		if is_set (Maximum) then
			if Maximum >= #a then												-- if display-authors value greater than or equal to number of authors
				table.insert( z.maintenance_cats, "CS1 maint: display-authors");	-- add maintenance category because display-authors parameter may be removed
			end
		else
			Maximum = #a + 1;													-- number of authors + 1
		end
 
		local control = { 
			format = NameListFormat,											-- empty string or 'vanc'
			maximum = Maximum,
			lastauthoramp = LastAuthorAmp,
			page_name = this_page.text				-- get current page name so that we don't wikilink to it via authorlinkn
		};
 
		-- If the coauthor field is also used, prevent ampersand and et al. formatting.
		if is_set(Coauthors) then
			control.lastauthoramp = nil;
			control.maximum = #a + 1;
		end
 
		Authors = listpeople(control, a) 
	end
 
	if not is_set(Authors) and is_set(Coauthors) then	-- coauthors aren't displayed if one of authors=, authorn=, or lastn= isn't specified
		table.insert( z.message_tail, { seterror('coauthors_missing_author', {}, true) } );	-- emit error message
	end
 
	local EditorCount
	if not is_set(Editors) then
		local Maximum = tonumber( A['DisplayEditors'] );
		-- Preserve old-style implicit et al.
		if not is_set(Maximum) and #e == 4 then 
			Maximum = 3;
			table.insert( z.message_tail, { seterror('implict_etal_editor', {}, true) } );
		elseif not is_set(Maximum) then
			Maximum = #e + 1;
		end
 
		local control = { 
			format = NameListFormat,											-- empty string or 'vanc'
			maximum = Maximum,
			lastauthoramp = LastAuthorAmp,
			page_name = this_page.text				-- get current page name so that we don't wikilink to it via editorlinkn
		};
 
		Editors, EditorCount = listpeople(control, e);
	else
		EditorCount = 1;
	end
 
	local Cartography = "";
	local Scale = "";
	if config.CitationClass == "map" then
		if not is_set( Authors ) and is_set( PublisherName ) then
			Authors = PublisherName;
			PublisherName = "";
		end
		Cartography = A['Cartography'];
		if is_set( Cartography ) then
			Cartography = sepc .. " " .. wrap_msg ('cartography', Cartography, use_lowercase);
		end		
		Scale = A['Scale'];
		if is_set( Scale ) then
			Scale = sepc .. " " .. Scale;
		end		
	end
 
	Format = is_set(Format) and " (" .. Format .. ")" or "";
 
	if  not is_set(URL) and
		not is_set(ArchiveURL) and
		not is_set(ConferenceURL) and											-- TODO: keep this here? conference as part of cite web or cite podcast?
		not is_set(TranscriptURL) then
 
		-- Test if cite web or cite podcast |url= is missing or empty 
		if inArray(config.CitationClass, {"web","podcast", "mailinglist"}) then	
			table.insert( z.message_tail, { seterror( 'cite_web_url', {}, true ) } );
		end
 
		-- Test if accessdate is given without giving a URL
		if is_set(AccessDate) and not is_set(ChapterURL)then					-- ChapterURL may be set when the others are not set; TODO: move this to a separate test?
			table.insert( z.message_tail, { seterror( 'accessdate_missing_url', {}, true ) } );
			AccessDate = '';
		end
 
		-- Test if format is given without giving a URL
		if is_set(Format) then
			Format = Format .. seterror( 'format_missing_url', {'format', 'url'} );
		end
	end
--[[
	-- Test if citation has no title
	if	not is_set(Title) and
--		not is_set(Periodical) and			-- not a title
--		not is_set(Conference) and			-- not a title
		not is_set(TransTitle) and
		not is_set(ScriptTitle) then
		table.insert( z.message_tail, { seterror( 'citation_missing_title', {}, true ) } );
	end
 
	if 'none' == Title and is_set(Periodical) then								-- special case
		Title = '';																-- set title to empty string
		table.insert( z.maintenance_cats, "CS1 maint: Untitled periodical");	-- add to maint category
	end
]]
	local OriginalURL;
	DeadURL = DeadURL:lower();													-- used later when assembling archived text
	if is_set( ArchiveURL ) then
		if is_set (URL) then
			OriginalURL = URL;													-- save copy of original source URL
			if 'no' ~= DeadURL then												-- if URL set then archive-url applies to it
				URL = ArchiveURL												-- swap-in the archive's url
				URLorigin = A:ORIGIN('ArchiveURL')								-- name of archive url parameter for error messages
			end
		elseif is_set (ChapterURL) then 										-- URL not set so if chapter-url is set apply archive url to it
			OriginalURL = ChapterURL;											-- save copy of source chapter's url for archive text
			if 'no' ~= DeadURL then
				ChapterURL = ArchiveURL											-- swap-in the archive's url
				URLorigin = A:ORIGIN('ArchiveURL')								-- name of archive url parameter for error messages
			end
		end
	end
 
	if inArray(config.CitationClass, {"web","news","journal","pressrelease","podcast", "newsgroup"}) or
		('citation' == config.CitationClass and is_set (Periodical) and not is_set (Encyclopedia)) then
			if is_set (Chapter) or is_set (TransChapter) or is_set (ChapterURL)then	-- chapter parameters not supported for these citation types
				table.insert( z.message_tail, { seterror( 'chapter_ignored', {}, true ) } );		-- add error message
				Chapter = '';														-- set to empty string to be safe with concatenation
				TransChapter = '';
				ChapterURL = '';
			end
	else																		-- otherwise, format chapter / article title
		Chapter = format_chapter_title (Chapter, TransChapter, ChapterURL, ChapterURLorigin);
		if is_set (Chapter) then
			ChapterFormat = is_set(ChapterFormat) and " (" .. ChapterFormat .. ")" or "";
			if is_set(ChapterFormat) and not is_set (ChapterURL) then			-- Test if |chapter-format= is given without giving a |chapter-url=
				ChapterFormat = ChapterFormat .. seterror( 'format_missing_url', {'chapter-format', 'chapter-url'} );
			end
			Chapter = Chapter .. ChapterFormat .. sepc .. ' ';
		end
	end
 
	-- Format main title.
	if is_set(TitleLink) and is_set(Title) then
		Title = "[[" .. TitleLink .. "|" .. Title .. "]]"
	end
 
	if inArray(config.CitationClass, {"web","news","journal","pressrelease","podcast", "newsgroup", "mailinglist"}) or
		('citation' == config.CitationClass and is_set (Periodical) and not is_set (Encyclopedia)) then
			Title = kern_quotes (Title);											-- if necessary, separate title's leading and trailing quote marks from Module provided quote marks
			Title = wrap_style ('quoted-title', Title);
 
			Title = script_concatenate (Title, ScriptTitle);						-- <bdi> tags, lang atribute, categorization, etc; must be done after title is wrapped
			TransTitle= wrap_style ('trans-quoted-title', TransTitle );
	elseif 'report' == config.CitationClass then								-- no styling for cite report
		Title = script_concatenate (Title, ScriptTitle);						-- <bdi> tags, lang atribute, categorization, etc; must be done after title is wrapped
		TransTitle= wrap_style ('trans-quoted-title', TransTitle );				-- for cite report, use this form for trans-title
	else
		Title = wrap_style ('italic-title', Title);
		Title = script_concatenate (Title, ScriptTitle);						-- <bdi> tags, lang atribute, categorization, etc; must be done after title is wrapped
		TransTitle = wrap_style ('trans-italic-title', TransTitle);
	end
 
	TransError = "";
	if is_set(TransTitle) then
		if is_set(Title) then
			TransTitle = " " .. TransTitle;
		else
			TransError = " " .. seterror( 'trans_missing_title' );
		end
	end
 
	Title = Title .. TransTitle;
 
	if is_set(Title) then
		if not is_set(TitleLink) and is_set(URL) then 
			Title = externallink( URL, Title ) .. TransError .. Format	   
			URL = "";
			Format = "";
		else
			Title = Title .. TransError;
		end
	end
 
	if is_set(Place) then
		Place = " " .. wrap_msg ('written', Place, use_lowercase) .. sepc .. " ";
	end
 
	if is_set(Conference) then
		if is_set(ConferenceURL) then
			Conference = externallink( ConferenceURL, Conference );
		end
		Conference = sepc .. " " .. Conference
	elseif is_set(ConferenceURL) then
		Conference = sepc .. " " .. externallink( ConferenceURL, nil, ConferenceURLorigin );
	end
 
	if not is_set(Position) then
		local Minutes = A['Minutes'];
		if is_set(Minutes) then
			Position = " " .. Minutes .. " " .. cfg.messages['minutes'];
		else
			local Time = A['Time'];
			if is_set(Time) then
				local TimeCaption = A['TimeCaption']
				if not is_set(TimeCaption) then
					TimeCaption = cfg.messages['event'];
					if sepc ~= '.' then
						TimeCaption = TimeCaption:lower();
					end
				end
				Position = " " .. TimeCaption .. " " .. Time;
			end
		end
	else
		Position = " " .. Position;
		At = '';
	end
 
	if not is_set(Page) then
		if is_set(Pages) then
			if is_set(Periodical) and
				not inArray(config.CitationClass, {"encyclopaedia","web","book","news","podcast"}) then
				Pages = ": " .. Pages;
			elseif tonumber(Pages) ~= nil then
				Pages = sepc .." " .. PPrefix .. Pages;
			else
				Pages = sepc .." " .. PPPrefix .. Pages;
			end
		end
	else
		if is_set(Periodical) and
			not inArray(config.CitationClass, {"encyclopaedia","web","book","news","podcast"}) then
			Page = ": " .. Page;
		else
			Page = sepc .." " .. PPrefix .. Page;
		end
	end
 
	At = is_set(At) and (sepc .. " " .. At) or "";
	Position = is_set(Position) and (sepc .. " " .. Position) or "";
	if config.CitationClass == 'map' then
		local Section = A['Section'];
		local Inset = A['Inset'];
		if first_set( Pages, Page, At ) ~= nil or sepc ~= '.' then
			if is_set( Section ) then
				Section = ", " .. wrap_msg ('section', Section, true);
			end
			if is_set( Inset ) then
				Inset = ", " .. wrap_msg ('inset', Inset, true);
			end
		else
			if is_set( Section ) then
				Section = sepc .. " " .. wrap_msg ('section', Section, use_lowercase);
				if is_set( Inset ) then
					Inset = ", " .. wrap_msg ('inset', Inset, true);
				end
			elseif is_set( Inset ) then
				Inset = sepc .. " " .. wrap_msg ('inset', Inset, use_lowercase);
			end			
		end			
		At = At .. Section .. Inset;		
	end	
 
	if is_set (Language) then
		Language = language_parameter (Language, this_page.namespace);			-- format, categories (article namespace only), name from ISO639-1, etc
	else
		Language="";															-- language not specified so make sure this is an empty string;
	end
 
	Others = is_set(Others) and (sepc .. " " .. Others) or "";
 
-- handle type parameter for those CS1 citations that have default values
 
	if inArray(config.CitationClass, {"AV-media-notes", "DVD-notes", "mailinglist", "podcast", "pressrelease", "report", "techreport", "thesis"}) then
		TitleType = set_titletype (config.CitationClass, TitleType);
		if is_set(Degree) and "Thesis" == TitleType then	-- special case for cite thesis
			TitleType = Degree .. " thesis";
		end
	end
 
	if is_set(TitleType) then					-- if type parameter is specified
		TitleType = " (" .. TitleType .. ")";	-- display it in parentheses
	end
 
	TitleNote = is_set(TitleNote) and (sepc .. " " .. TitleNote) or "";
	Edition = is_set(Edition) and (" " .. wrap_msg ('edition', Edition)) or "";
	Issue = is_set(Issue) and (" (" .. Issue .. ")") or "";
	Series = is_set(Series) and (sepc .. " " .. Series) or "";
	OrigYear = is_set(OrigYear) and (" [" .. OrigYear .. "]") or "";
	Agency = is_set(Agency) and (sepc .. " " .. Agency) or "";
 
	if is_set(Volume) then
		if ( mw.ustring.len(Volume) > 4 )
		  then Volume = sepc .." " .. Volume;
		  else Volume = " <b>" .. hyphentodash(Volume) .. "</b>";
		end
	end
 
	------------------------------------ totally unrelated data
	if is_set(Via) then
		Via = " " .. wrap_msg ('via', Via);
	end
 
--[[
Subscription implies paywall; Registration does not.  If both are used in a citation, the subscription required link
note is displayed. There are no error messages for this condition.
 
]]
	if inArray(SubscriptionRequired:lower(), {'yes', 'true', 'y'}) then
		SubscriptionRequired = sepc .. " " .. cfg.messages['subscription'];		-- subscription required message
	elseif inArray(RegistrationRequired:lower(), {'yes', 'true', 'y'}) then
		SubscriptionRequired = sepc .. " " .. cfg.messages['registration'];		-- registration required message
	else
		SubscriptionRequired = '';												-- either or both might be set to something other than yes true y
	end
 
	if is_set(AccessDate) then
		local retrv_text = " " .. cfg.messages['retrieved']
 
		AccessDate = nowrap_date (AccessDate);									-- wrap in nowrap span if date in appropriate format
		if (sepc ~= ".") then retrv_text = retrv_text:lower() end				-- if 'citation', lower case
		AccessDate = substitute (retrv_text, AccessDate);						-- add retrieved text
																				-- neither of these work; don't know why; it seems that substitute() isn't being called	
		AccessDate = substitute (cfg.presentation['accessdate'], {sepc, AccessDate});	-- allow editors to hide accessdates
	end
 
	if is_set(ID) then ID = sepc .." ".. ID; end
   	if "thesis" == config.CitationClass and is_set(Docket) then
		ID = sepc .." Docket ".. Docket .. ID;
	end
   	if "report" == config.CitationClass and is_set(Docket) then					-- for cite report when |docket= is set
		ID = sepc .. ' ' .. Docket;												-- overwrite ID even if |id= is set
	end
 
	ID_list = buildidlist( ID_list, {DoiBroken = DoiBroken, ASINTLD = ASINTLD, IgnoreISBN = IgnoreISBN, Embargo=Embargo} );
 
	if is_set(URL) then
		URL = " " .. externallink( URL, nil, URLorigin );
	end
 
	if is_set(Quote) then
		if Quote:sub(1,1) == '"' and Quote:sub(-1,-1) == '"' then
			Quote = Quote:sub(2,-2);
		end
		Quote = sepc .." " .. wrap_style ('quoted-text', Quote ); 				-- wrap in <q>...</q> tags
		PostScript = "";														-- CS1 does not supply terminal punctuation when |quote= is set
	end
 
	local Archived
	if is_set(ArchiveURL) then
		if not is_set(ArchiveDate) then
			ArchiveDate = seterror('archive_missing_date');
		end
		if "no" == DeadURL then
			local arch_text = cfg.messages['archived'];
			if sepc ~= "." then arch_text = arch_text:lower() end
			Archived = sepc .. " " .. substitute( cfg.messages['archived-not-dead'],
				{ externallink( ArchiveURL, arch_text ), ArchiveDate } );
			if not is_set(OriginalURL) then
				Archived = Archived .. " " .. seterror('archive_missing_url');							   
			end
		elseif is_set(OriginalURL) then
			local arch_text = cfg.messages['archived-dead'];
			if sepc ~= "." then arch_text = arch_text:lower() end
			Archived = sepc .. " " .. substitute( arch_text,
				{ externallink( OriginalURL, cfg.messages['original'] ), ArchiveDate } );
		else
			local arch_text = cfg.messages['archived-missing'];
			if sepc ~= "." then arch_text = arch_text:lower() end
			Archived = sepc .. " " .. substitute( arch_text, 
				{ seterror('archive_missing_url'), ArchiveDate } );
		end
	else
		Archived = ""
	end
 
	local Lay
	if is_set(LayURL) then
		if is_set(LayDate) then LayDate = " (" .. LayDate .. ")" end
		if is_set(LaySource) then 
			LaySource = " &ndash; ''" .. safeforitalics(LaySource) .. "''";
		else
			LaySource = "";
		end
		if sepc == '.' then
			Lay = sepc .. " " .. externallink( LayURL, cfg.messages['lay summary'] ) .. LaySource .. LayDate
		else
			Lay = sepc .. " " .. externallink( LayURL, cfg.messages['lay summary']:lower() ) .. LaySource .. LayDate
		end			
	else
		Lay = "";
	end
 
	if is_set(Transcript) then
		if is_set(TranscriptURL) then Transcript = externallink( TranscriptURL, Transcript ); end
	elseif is_set(TranscriptURL) then
		Transcript = externallink( TranscriptURL, nil, TranscriptURLorigin );
	end
 
	local Publisher;
	if is_set(Periodical) and
		not inArray(config.CitationClass, {"encyclopaedia","web","pressrelease","podcast"}) then
		if is_set(PublisherName) then
			if is_set(PublicationPlace) then
				Publisher = PublicationPlace .. ": " .. PublisherName;
			else
				Publisher = PublisherName;  
			end
		elseif is_set(PublicationPlace) then
			Publisher= PublicationPlace;
		else 
			Publisher = "";
		end
		if is_set(PublicationDate) then
			if is_set(Publisher) then
				Publisher = Publisher .. ", " .. wrap_msg ('published', PublicationDate);
			else
				Publisher = PublicationDate;
			end
		end
		if is_set(Publisher) then
			Publisher = " (" .. Publisher .. ")";
		end
	else
		if is_set(PublicationDate) then
			PublicationDate = " (" .. wrap_msg ('published', PublicationDate) .. ")";
		end
		if is_set(PublisherName) then
			if is_set(PublicationPlace) then
				Publisher = sepc .. " " .. PublicationPlace .. ": " .. PublisherName .. PublicationDate;
			else
				Publisher = sepc .. " " .. PublisherName .. PublicationDate;  
			end			
		elseif is_set(PublicationPlace) then 
			Publisher= sepc .. " " .. PublicationPlace .. PublicationDate;
		else 
			Publisher = PublicationDate;
		end
	end
 
	-- Several of the above rely upon detecting this as nil, so do it last.
	if is_set(Periodical) then
		if is_set(Title) or is_set(TitleNote) then 
			Periodical = sepc .. " " .. wrap_style ('italic-title', Periodical) 
		else 
			Periodical = wrap_style ('italic-title', Periodical)
		end
	end
 
--[[
Handle the oddity that is cite speech.  This code overrides whatever may be the value assigned to TitleNote (through |department=) and forces it to be " (Speech)" so that
the annotation directly follows the |title= parameter value in the citation rather than the |event= parameter value (if provided).
]]
	if "speech" == config.CitationClass then				-- cite speech only
		TitleNote = " (Speech)";							-- annotate the citation
		if is_set (Periodical) then							-- if Periodical, perhaps because of an included |website= or |journal= parameter 
			if is_set (Conference) then						-- and if |event= is set
				Conference = Conference .. sepc .. " ";		-- then add appropriate punctuation to the end of the Conference variable before rendering
			end
		end
	end
 
	-- Piece all bits together at last.  Here, all should be non-nil.
	-- We build things this way because it is more efficient in LUA
	-- not to keep reassigning to the same string variable over and over.
 
	local tcommon
	if inArray(config.CitationClass, {"journal","citation"}) and is_set(Periodical) then
		if is_set(Others) then Others = Others .. sepc .. " " end
		tcommon = safejoin( {Others, Title, TitleNote, Conference, Periodical, Format, TitleType, Scale, Series, 
			Language, Cartography, Edition, Publisher, Agency, Volume, Issue}, sepc );
	else 
		tcommon = safejoin( {Title, TitleNote, Conference, Periodical, Format, TitleType, Scale, Series, Language, 
			Volume, Issue, Others, Cartography, Edition, Publisher, Agency}, sepc );
	end
 
	if #ID_list > 0 then
		ID_list = safejoin( { sepc .. " ",  table.concat( ID_list, sepc .. " " ), ID }, sepc );
	else
		ID_list = ID;
	end
 
	local idcommon = safejoin( { ID_list, URL, Archived, AccessDate, Via, SubscriptionRequired, Lay, Quote }, sepc );
	local text;
	local pgtext = Position .. Page .. Pages .. At;
 
	if is_set(Authors) then
		if is_set(Coauthors) then
			local sep = '; ';
			if 'vanc' == NameListFormat then
				sep = ', ';
			end
			Authors = Authors .. sep .. Coauthors;
		end
		if is_set(Date) then
			Date = " ("..Date..")" .. OrigYear .. sepc .. " "
		elseif string.sub(Authors,-1,-1) == sepc then
			Authors = Authors .. " "
		else
			Authors = Authors .. sepc .. " "
		end
		if is_set(Editors) then
			local in_text = " ";
			local post_text = "";
			if is_set(Chapter) then
				in_text = in_text .. cfg.messages['in'] .. " "
			else
				if EditorCount <= 1 then
					post_text = ", " .. cfg.messages['editor'];
				else
					post_text = ", " .. cfg.messages['editors'];
				end
			end 
			if (sepc ~= '.') then in_text = in_text:lower() end
			Editors = in_text .. Editors .. post_text;
			if (string.sub(Editors,-1,-1) == sepc)
				then Editors = Editors .. " "
				else Editors = Editors .. sepc .. " "
			end
		end
		text = safejoin( {Authors, Date, Chapter, Place, Editors, tcommon }, sepc );
		text = safejoin( {text, pgtext, idcommon}, sepc );
	elseif is_set(Editors) then
		if is_set(Date) then
			if EditorCount <= 1 then
				Editors = Editors .. ", " .. cfg.messages['editor'];
			else
				Editors = Editors .. ", " .. cfg.messages['editors'];
			end
			Date = " (" .. Date ..")" .. OrigYear .. sepc .. " "
		else
			if EditorCount <= 1 then
				Editors = Editors .. " (" .. cfg.messages['editor'] .. ")" .. sepc .. " "
			else
				Editors = Editors .. " (" .. cfg.messages['editors'] .. ")" .. sepc .. " "
			end
		end
		text = safejoin( {Editors, Date, Chapter, Place, tcommon}, sepc );
		text = safejoin( {text, pgtext, idcommon}, sepc );
	else
		if is_set(Date) then
			if ( string.sub(tcommon,-1,-1) ~= sepc )
			  then Date = sepc .." " .. Date .. OrigYear
			  else Date = " " .. Date .. OrigYear
			end
		end
		if config.CitationClass=="journal" and is_set(Periodical) then
			text = safejoin( {Chapter, Place, tcommon}, sepc );
			text = safejoin( {text, pgtext, Date, idcommon}, sepc );
		else
			text = safejoin( {Chapter, Place, tcommon, Date}, sepc );
			text = safejoin( {text, pgtext, idcommon}, sepc );
		end
	end
 
	if is_set(PostScript) and PostScript ~= sepc then
		text = safejoin( {text, sepc}, sepc );  --Deals with italics, spaces, etc.
		text = text:sub(1,-sepc:len()-1);
--		text = text:sub(1,-2);	--Remove final separator (assumes that sepc is only one character)
	end	
 
	text = safejoin( {text, PostScript}, sepc );
 
	-- Now enclose the whole thing in a <span/> element
	local options = {};
 
	if is_set(config.CitationClass) and config.CitationClass ~= "citation" then
		options.class = "citation " .. config.CitationClass;
	else
		options.class = "citation";
	end
 
	if is_set(Ref) and Ref:lower() ~= "none" then
		local id = Ref
		if ( "harv" == Ref ) then
			local names = {} --table of last names & year
			if #a > 0 then
				for i,v in ipairs(a) do 
					names[i] = v.last 
					if i == 4 then break end
				end
			elseif #e > 0 then
				for i,v in ipairs(e) do 
					names[i] = v.last 
					if i == 4 then break end				
				end
			end
			names[ #names + 1 ] = first_set(Year, anchor_year);	-- Year first for legacy citations and for YMD dates that require disambiguation
			id = anchorid(names)
		end
		options.id = id;
	end
 
	if string.len(text:gsub("<span[^>/]*>.-</span>", ""):gsub("%b<>","")) <= 2 then
		z.error_categories = {};
		text = seterror('empty_citation');
		z.message_tail = {};
	end
 
	if is_set(options.id) then 
		text = '<span id="' .. mw.uri.anchorEncode(options.id) ..'" class="' .. mw.text.nowiki(options.class) .. '">' .. text .. "</span>";
	else
		text = '<span class="' .. mw.text.nowiki(options.class) .. '">' .. text .. "</span>";
	end		
 
	local empty_span = '<span style="display:none;">&nbsp;</span>';
 
	-- Note: Using display: none on then COinS span breaks some clients.
	local OCinS = '<span title="' .. OCinSoutput .. '" class="Z3988">' .. empty_span .. '</span>';
	text = text .. OCinS;
 
	if #z.message_tail ~= 0 then
		text = text .. " ";
		for i,v in ipairs( z.message_tail ) do
			if is_set(v[1]) then
				if i == #z.message_tail then
					text = text .. errorcomment( v[1], v[2] );
				else
					text = text .. errorcomment( v[1] .. "; ", v[2] );
				end
			end
		end
	end
 
	no_tracking_cats = no_tracking_cats:lower();
	if inArray(no_tracking_cats, {"", "no", "false", "n"}) then
		for _, v in ipairs( z.error_categories ) do
			text = text .. '[[Category:' .. v ..']]';
		end
		for _, v in ipairs( z.maintenance_cats ) do								-- append maintenance categories
			text = text .. '[[Category:' .. v ..']]';
		end
		for _, v in ipairs( z.properties_cats ) do								-- append maintenance categories
			text = text .. '[[Category:' .. v ..']]';
		end
	end
 
	return text
end
 
-- This is used by templates such as {{cite book}} to create the actual citation text.
function z.citation(frame)
	local pframe = frame:getParent()
 
	if nil ~= string.find( frame:getTitle(), 'igralište', 1, true ) then				-- did the {{#invoke:}} use sandbox version?
		cfg = mw.loadData( 'Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration/igralište' );	-- load sandbox versions of Configuration and Whitelist and ...
		whitelist = mw.loadData( 'Module:Citation/CS1/Whitelist/igralište' );
		dates = require('Module:Citation/CS1/Date_validation/igralište').dates	-- ... sandbox version of date validation code
	else																	-- otherwise
		cfg = mw.loadData( 'Module:Citation/CS1/Configuration' );			-- load live versions of Configuration and Whitelist and ...
		whitelist = mw.loadData( 'Module:Citation/CS1/Whitelist' );
		dates = require('Module:Citation/CS1/Date_validation').dates		-- ... live version of date validation code
	end
 
	local args = {};
	local suggestions = {};
	local error_text, error_state;
 
	local config = {};
	for k, v in pairs( frame.args ) do
		config[k] = v;
		args[k] = v;	   
	end	
 
	for k, v in pairs( pframe.args ) do
		if v ~= '' then
			if not validate( k ) then			
				error_text = "";
				if type( k ) ~= 'string' then
					-- Exclude empty numbered parameters
					if v:match("%S+") ~= nil then
						error_text, error_state = seterror( 'text_ignored', {v}, true );
					end
				elseif validate( k:lower() ) then 
					error_text, error_state = seterror( 'parameter_ignored_suggest', {k, k:lower()}, true );
				else
					if #suggestions == 0 then
						suggestions = mw.loadData( 'Module:Citation/CS1/Suggestions' );
					end
					if suggestions[ k:lower() ] ~= nil then
						error_text, error_state = seterror( 'parameter_ignored_suggest', {k, suggestions[ k:lower() ]}, true );
					else
						error_text, error_state = seterror( 'parameter_ignored', {k}, true );
					end
				end				  
				if error_text ~= '' then
					table.insert( z.message_tail, {error_text, error_state} );
				end				
			end
			args[k] = v;
		elseif args[k] ~= nil or (k == 'postscript') then
			args[k] = v;
		end		
	end	
 
	return citation0( config, args)
end
 
return z