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Endofita

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Endofita ili endofit je endosimbiont, često bakterija ili gljiva, koja živi unutar biljke, ili barem jedan njen dio životnog ciklusa, bez uočljivog izazivanja bolesti.[1][2][3][4] Endofite su sveprisutno raširene i mogu se naći kod svih do danas proučavanih biljaka. Međutim, većina međuodnosa endofit–biljka domaćin nije sasvim poznata.[5][6][7][8] Također poznato je da se endofite javljaju i na lišajima[9] i algama.[10][11] Mnoge ekonomski važne trave (npr. Festuca spp. i Lolium spp.) nose gljivične endofite roda Epichloë,[12][13][14] koje mogu poboljšati rast[15] i snabdijevanje hranjivim sastojcima.[16] Mogu poboljšati i sposobnost biljke da izdržava abiotske stresove, kao što su suša i povećati otpornost na insekte, biljne patogene i sisare biljojede.[17][18][19]

Prenošenje[uredi | uredi izvor]

Endofite se mogu prenositi ili vertikalno (direktno od roditelja na potomstvo) ili horizontalno (među jedinkama).[20] Vertikalno prenosivee gljivične endofite se obično smatraju klonskim i prenose preko gljivičnih hifa koje prodiru unutar embriona u sjemenu domaćina, kao naprimjer kod oblika roda Epichloë.[21][22][23] Nasuprot tome, reprodukcija putem aseksualnih ili seksualnih spora dovodi do horizontalnog prijenosa, gdje se endofite mogu prenositi između biljaka u populaciji ili u zajednici.[24] Neke endofite koje se često prenose vertikalno mogu proizvesti spore u biljkama, koje se mogu prenijeti horizontalno (npr. Epichloë festucae).[25][26][27] Neke od endofita iz roda Epichloë proizvode skrivene ali infektivne konidijske agense na površini listova.[24][28][29] Međutim, u kojoj mjeri se endofite oslanjaju na ove zagonetne konidije za horizontalni prijenos, još uvijek je nepoznato. Neke endofitske gljivice su zapravo prikriveni patogeni ili saprotrofi i postaju aktivne i razmnožavaju se samo pod određenim uslovima okoliša ili kada im biljke domaćini to omoguće ili počnu da stare.[30][31]

Također pogledajte[uredi | uredi izvor]

Reference[uredi | uredi izvor]

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