SARS-CoV-2

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Ovaj članak je o virusu koji je otkriven krajem 2019. Za bolest koju izaziva ovaj virus, pogledajte COVID-19. Za epidemiju koja je izbila u Wuhanu krajem 2019, pogledajte Epidemija novog koronavirusa 2019/20.
Teški akutni respiratorni sindrom koronavirus 2
Elektronski mikrograf SARS-CoV-2 viriona
Elektronski mikrograf SARS-CoV-2 viriona
Ilustracija poprečnog presjeka virusa SARS-CoV-2 koji prikazuje unutrašnje dijelove
Ilustracija poprečnog presjeka virusa SARS-CoV-2 koji prikazuje unutrašnje dijelove
Sistematika
Red Nidovirales
Porodica Coronaviridae
Potporodica Orthocoronavirinae
Rod Betacoronavirus
Podrod Sarbecovirus
Vrsta SARS
Sinonimi
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Novi koronavirus 2019
  • 2019-nCoV

SARS-CoV-2 (engleski: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, u prevodu: teški akutni respiratorni sindrom koronavirus 2) jest zarazni virus koji uzrokuje COVID-19 akutnu respiratornu bolest.[1] Virus je uzrok epidemije novog koronavirusa. Genomsko sekvenciranje je pokazalo da je to pozitivni, jedno-lančani RNK koronavirus i sadrži 29.903 nukleotida.[2]

Mnogi rani slučajevi bili su povezani sa velikom pijacom morskih plodova i životinja u Wuhanu, a smatra se da virus ima životinjsko porijeklo. Redanjem genetskih sekvenci ovog virusa i drugih uzoraka virusa pokazala su sličnost sa SARS-CoV (79,5%) i koronavirusom šišmiša (96%).[3] Zbog toga se smatra da porijeklo virusa vjerovatno dolazi od šišmiša,[4][5] iako porijeklo od ljuskavaca (pangolini) nije isključeno.[6]

Kako bi se izbjegla zabuna s bolešću SARS, Svjetska zdravstvena organizacija u svojim javnim istupima naziva virus kao "virus koji je izazvao bolest COVID-19".[7]

Virologija[uredi | uredi izvor]

Infekcija[uredi | uredi izvor]

Prenos s čovjeka na čovjeka potvrđen je tokom pandemije novog koronavirusa SARS-CoV-2.[8] Prenosi se preko respiratornih kapljica od kašljanja u rasponu od oko 2 m.[9][10] Moguće se zaraziti i indirektno preko kontaminiranih površina.[11] Virus se širi relativno brzo i lako među ljudima, te se procjenjuje da bi jedna oboljela osoba u prosjeku mogla zaraziti dvije do tri osjetljive osobe.[12]

Preliminarna istraživanja ukazuju da virus može opstati na plastici i čeliku do tri dana, ali ne i na kartonu gdje može preživjeti ne više od jednog dana, i bakru na kojem virus može preživjeti ne više od četiri sata.[13] Virus se inaktivira sapunom, koji destabilizuje njegov lipidni dvosloj.[14][15]

Također, moguća je infekcija u toku inkubacijskog perioda virusa, ali to još nije u potpunosti dokazano,[16] tako da takva asimptomatska vrsta prenošenja nije rasprostranjena, te da su infekcije uglavnom rezultat prenošenja virusa od pacijenata koji imaju stvarne simptome bolesti COVID-19.

Rezervoar[uredi | uredi izvor]

Prve poznate infekcije virusnog soja SARS-CoV-2 desile su se u Wuhanu, međutim izvor zaraze ostaje nepoznat.[17][18][19]

Epidemiologija[uredi | uredi izvor]

Vjeruje se da se prvi poznati slučaj infekcije desio 17. novembra 2019.[20] Virus se potom proširio na sve provincije u Kini, a onda i ostatak svijeta.[21][22] Svjetska zdravstvena organizacija je 30. januara 2020. proglasila virus prijetnjom za međunarodno javno zdravstvo,[23][24] a 11. marta 2020 proglasila pandemijom.[25]

Galerija[uredi | uredi izvor]

Elektronski mikrografi SARS-CoV-2

Također pogledajte[uredi | uredi izvor]

Dalje čitanje[uredi | uredi izvor]

  • Brüssow H (mart 2020). "The Novel Coronavirus – A Snapshot of Current Knowledge". Microbial Biotechnology. 2020: 1–6. doi:10.1111/1751-7915.13557. PMID 32144890.
  • Habibzadeh P, Stoneman EK (februar 2020). "The Novel Coronavirus: A Bird's Eye View". The International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine. 11 (2): 65–71. doi:10.15171/ijoem.2020.1921. PMID 32020915.
  • World Health Organization (2020). Laboratory testing of human suspected cases of novel coronavirus (nCoV) infection: interim guidance, 10 January 2020 (Report). World Health Organization. hdl:10665/330374. WHO/2019-nCoV/laboratory/2020.1.
  • World Health Organization (2020). WHO R&D Blueprint: informal consultation on prioritization of candidate therapeutic agents for use in novel coronavirus 2019 infection, Geneva, Switzerland, 24 January 2020 (Report). World Health Organization. hdl:10665/330680. WHO/HEO/R&D Blueprint (nCoV)/2020.1.

Reference[uredi | uredi izvor]

  1. ^ "Coronavirus disease named Covid-19". BBC News Online. 11. 2. 2020. Arhivirano s originala, 15. 2. 2020. Pristupljeno 15. 2. 2020.
  2. ^ "中国疾病预防控制中心" (jezik: Chinese). People's Republic of China: Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Arhivirano s originala, 6. 2. 2020. Pristupljeno 9. 1. 2020.CS1 održavanje: Nepoznati jezik (link)
  3. ^ Zhou, Peng; Yang, Xing-Lou; Wang, Xian-Guang; Hu, Ben; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Wei; Si, Hao-Rui (3. 2. 2020). "A pneumonia outbreak associated with a new coronavirus of probable bat origin". Nature: 1–4. doi:10.1038/s41586-020-2012-7. PMID 32015507. Arhivirano s originala, 3. 2. 2020. Pristupljeno 3. 2. 2020 – preko www.nature.com/.
  4. ^ Benvenuto, Domenico; Giovannetti, Marta; Ciccozzi, Alessandra; Spoto, Silvia; Angeletti, Silvia; Ciccozzi, Massimo (2020). "The 2019 new Coronavirus epidemic: evidence for virus evolution". bioRxiv: 2020.01.24.915157. doi:10.1101/2020.01.24.915157.
  5. ^ Callaway, Ewen; Cyranoski, David (23. 1. 2020). "Why snakes probably aren't spreading the new China virus". Nature. doi:10.1038/d41586-020-00180-8. Arhivirano s originala, 25. 1. 2020. Pristupljeno 27. 1. 2020.
  6. ^ World Health Organization (2020). Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV): situation report, 22 (Report). World Health Organization. hdl:10665/330991.
  7. ^ "Naming the coronavirus disease (COVID-2019) and the virus that causes it". World Health Organization. Pristupljeno 24. 2. 2020. From a risk communications perspective, using the name SARS can have unintended consequences in terms of creating unnecessary fear for some populations.... For that reason and others, WHO has begun referring to the virus as “the virus responsible for COVID-19” or “the COVID-19 virus” when communicating with the public. Neither of these designations are [sic] intended as replacements for the official name of the virus as agreed by the ICTV.
  8. ^ Chan JF, Yuan S, Kok KH, To KK, Chu H, Yang J, et al. (februar 2020). "A familial cluster of pneumonia associated with the 2019 novel coronavirus indicating person-to-person transmission: a study of a family cluster". Lancet. 395 (10223): 514–523. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30154-9. PMID 31986261.
  9. ^ Edwards E (25. 1. 2020). "How does coronavirus spread?". NBC News. Arhivirano s originala, 28. 1. 2020. Pristupljeno 13. 3. 2020.
  10. ^ "How COVID-19 Spreads". U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 27. 1. 2020. Arhivirano s originala, 28. 1. 2020. Pristupljeno 29. 1. 2020.
  11. ^ "Getting your workplace ready for COVID-19" (PDF). World Health Organization. 27. 2. 2020. Pristupljeno 3. 3. 2020.
  12. ^ "Pitanja i odgovori o bolesti uzrokovanoj novim koronavirusom". www.hzjz.hr (jezik: hrvatski). Pristupljeno 18. 3. 2020.
  13. ^ van Doremalen N, Bushmaker T, Morris DH, Holbrook MG, Gamble A, Williamson BN, et al. (17. 3. 2020). "Correspondence: Aerosol and Surface Stability of SARS-CoV-2 as Compared with SARS-CoV-1". The New England Journal of Medicine. doi:10.1056/NEJMc2004973. PMID 32182409.
  14. ^ Yong E (20. 3. 2020). "Why the Coronavirus Has Been So Successful". The Atlantic. Arhivirano s originala, 20. 3. 2020. Pristupljeno 20. 3. 2020.
  15. ^ "Unite against COVID-19". New Zealand Government - Unite against COVID-19.
  16. ^ Kupferschmidt K (februar 2020). "Study claiming new coronavirus can be transmitted by people without symptoms was flawed". Science. doi:10.1126/science.abb1524.
  17. ^ Cohen J (januar 2020). "Wuhan seafood market may not be source of novel virus spreading globally". Science. doi:10.1126/science.abb0611. ISSN 0036-8075.
  18. ^ Eschner K (28. 1. 2020). "We're still not sure where the Wuhan coronavirus really came from". Popular Science. Arhivirano s originala, 29. 1. 2020. Pristupljeno 30. 1. 2020.
  19. ^ Yu WB, Tang GD, Zhang L, Corlett RT (21. 2. 2020). "Decoding evolution and transmissions of novel pneumonia coronavirus using the whole genomic data". doi:10.12074/202002.00033 (neaktivno 26. 2. 2020). Cite journal zahtijeva |journal= (pomoć)
  20. ^ Ma J (13. 3. 2020). "Coronavirus: China's first confirmed Covid-19 case traced back to November 17". South China Morning Post. Pristupljeno 16. 3. 2020.
  21. ^ Rothe C, Schunk M, Sothmann P, Bretzel G, Froeschl G, Wallrauch C, et al. (mart 2020). "Transmission of 2019-nCoV Infection from an Asymptomatic Contact in Germany". The New England Journal of Medicine. 382 (10): 970–971. doi:10.1056/NEJMc2001468. PMID 32003551.
  22. ^ "Ecuador confirms five new cases of coronavirus, all close to initial patient". Reuters. 2. 3. 2020. Pristupljeno 5. 3. 2020.
  23. ^ Wee SL, McNeil Jr. DG, Hernández JC (30. 1. 2020). "W.H.O. Declares Global Emergency as Wuhan Coronavirus Spreads". The New York Times. Arhivirano s originala, 30. 1. 2020. Pristupljeno 30. 1. 2020.
  24. ^ "Statement on the second meeting of the International Health Regulations (2005) Emergency Committee regarding the outbreak of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV)". World Health Organization (WHO) (Press release). 30. 1. 2020. Arhivirano s originala, 31. 1. 2020. Pristupljeno 30. 1. 2020.
  25. ^ "WHO Director-General's opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19 - 11 March 2020". World Health Organization (WHO) (Press release). 11. 3. 2020. Pristupljeno 12. 3. 2020.

Vanjski linkovi[uredi | uredi izvor]