John Maynard Keynes

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John Maynard Keynes
Keynes 1933.jpg
Rođenje (1883-06-05) 5. juni 1883.
Cambridge, Engleska
Smrt (1946-04-21) 21. april 1946 (62 god)
Firle, Engleska

John Maynard Keynes (rođen 5. juna 1883. u Cambridge; umro 21. aprila 1946. u Firle, East Sussex) je bio engleski matematičar i ekonomista. Broji se među najznačajnije ekonomiste uopće. Njegove radikalne ideje i dan danas imaju veliki uticaj na ekonomske i političke teorije. Posebno je zapamćen kao zagovarač vladine politike intervencionisanja, po kojoj bi vlada mogla koristiti fiskalne i monetarne mjere da bi ciljano ublažila efekte ekonomske recesije, depresije i ekspolozije. Mnogi ga smatraju osnivačem moderne makroekonomije.

Djela[uredi | uredi izvor]

Najvažnije Keynesovo djelo je Opća teorija zaposlenosti, kamate i novca (The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money), 1936. U njemu je tvrdio i pokušao da dokaže da slobodan tržišni sistem ne teži ravnoteži, uključujući i punu zaposlenost, već baš neravnotežama izraženim krizama i privrednim ciklusima. Ovom knjigom Kejns je izvršio revoluciju u ekonomskoj nauci, budući da je doveo u pitanje centralnu propoziciju (do)tadašnje makroekonomske teorije. Iz Kejnsove teorije vrlo brzo je izvedena potreba široke državne intervencije, a fiskalne politike prije svega.

Kejnzijanizam je vladao makroekonomskim mišljenjem oko pola vijeka, da bi njegovu dominaciju ugrozila tzv. nova klasična ekonomija 1980-tih godina. Današnji neokejnzijanizam vrlo malo podsjeća na svog utemeljivača.

  • 1909. Skorašnji ekonomski događaji u Indiji ("The Recent Economic Events in India"), EJ
  • 1911. "Principal Averages and Laws of Error which Lead to Them", J of Royal Statis Soc
  • 1911. Uticaj roditeljskog alkoholizma (Influence of Parental Alcoholism"), J of Royal Statis Soc
  • 1911. "Irving Fisher's Purchasing Power of Money", EJ
  • 1912. Jevonsova teorija političke ekonomije (W.S. Jevons's Theory of Political Economy), EJ
  • 1912. "The Foreign Trade of the UK at Prices of 1900", EJ
  • 1913. "J.A. Hobson's Gold, Prices and Wages", EJ
  • 1913. Indian Currency and Finance
  • 1914. "Ludwig von Mises' Theorie des Geldes", EJ
  • 1914. "The Prospects of Money", EJ
  • 1914. "War and the Financial System", EJ
  • 1914. Grad London i Narodna Banka Engleske (The City of London and the Bank of England), QJE
  • 1915. "Walter Bagehot's Works and Life", EJ
  • 1915. "The Economics of War in Germay", EJ
  • 1919. Ekonomske posljedice mira (The Economic Consequences of the Peace)
  • 1920. "Ralph G. Hawtrey's Currency and Credit", EJ
  • 1921. A Treatise on Probability
  • 1922. Revision of the Treaty
  • 1922. "The Inflation of Currency as a Method of Taxation", MGCRE
  • 1923. A Tract on Monetary Reform
  • 1923. "Some Aspects of Commodity Markets", Manchester Guardian
  • 1923. "A Reply to Sir William Beveridge's Population and Unemployment", EJ.
  • 1923. "Population and Unemployment", EJ
  • 1923. "The Measure of Deflation: an inquiry into index numbers", N&A
  • 1923. "Mr. Bonar Law", N&A
  • 1923. Monetarna politika i nezaposlenost (Currency Policy and Unemployment), N&A
  • 1924. "Does Unemployment Need a Drastic Remedy?", N&A
  • 1924. "Edwin Montagu", N&A
  • 1924. "Alfred Marshall, 1842-1924", EJ and Memorials of Alfred Marshall, 1925.
  • 1924. "Monetary Reform", with E. Cannan, Addis and Milner, EJ
  • 1924. "A Comment on Professor Cannan", EJ
  • 1925. "The Gold Standard Act", EJ
  • 1925. "The Balfour Note and Inter-Allied Debts", N&A
  • 1925. The Economic Consequences of Mr. Churchill
  • 1925. A Short View of Russia
  • 1925. "Am I a Liberal?", N&A
  • 1926. The End of Laissez-Faire
  • 1926. "Liberalism and Labour", N&A
  • 1926. Laissez Faire and Communism
  • 1926. "Francis Ysidro Edgeworth", EJ
  • 1926. Trocki o Engleskoj (Trotsky on England), N&A
  • 1927. "A Note on Economy", N&A
  • 1927. "A Model Form for Statements of International Balances", EJ
  • 1927. "The British Balance of Trade", EJ
  • 1928. "The United States Balance of Trade", EJ
  • 1928 "Amalgamation of the British Note Issue", EJ
  • 1928. "Postwar Depression in the Lancashire Cotton Industry", J of Royal Statistical Society
  • 1928. "Lord Oxford", N&A
  • 1928. "The Great Villiers Connection", N&A
  • 1928. Réflexions sur le franc
  • 1928. "The French Stabilisation Law", EJ
  • 1928. "Frederic C. Mills' Behavior of Prices", EJ
  • 1928. "The War Debts", N&A
  • 1929. "A Rejoinder to Ohlin's The Reparation Problem", EJ
  • 1929. Can Lloyd George Do It? with H.D. Henderson
  • 1929. Vinston Čerčil (Winston Churchill), N&A
  • 1930. Rasprava o novcu (A Treatise on Money), u dva toma
  • 1930. "The Industrial Crisis", N&A
  • 1930. "The Great Slump of 1930", N&A
  • 1930. "Economic Possibilities for Our Grandchildren", N&A and Saturday Evening Post.
  • 1930. "Frank P. Ramsey", EJ and 1931, NSN
  • 1931. "A Rejoinder to D.H. Robertson, EJ
  • 1931. "Spending and Saving", The Listener
  • 1931. "The Problem of Unemployment", The Listener}-
  • 1931. "On the Eve of Gold Suspension", Evening Standard
  • 1931. "The End of the Gold Standard", Sunday Express
  • 1931. "After the Suspension of Gold", Times
  • 1931. "Proposals for a Revenue Tariff", NSN
  • 1931. "Some Consequences of the Economy Report", NSN
  • 1931. Essays in Persuasion
  • 1932. "The World's Economic Outlook", Atlantic Monthly
  • 1932. "The Prospects of the Sterling Exchange", Yale Review
  • 1932. "The Dilemma of Modern Socialism", Political Quarterly
  • 1932. "Member Bank Reserves in the United States", EJ}-
  • 1932. The World's Economic Crisis and the Way of Escape with A. Salter, J. Stamp, B. Blackett, H. Clay and W. Beveridge
  • 1932. "Saving and Usury", EJ
  • 1932. "A Note on the Long-Term Rate of Interest in Relation to the Conversion Scheme", EJ
  • 1933. "A Monetary Theory of Production", in Festschrift für Arthur Spiethoff.
  • 1933. "Mr. Robertson on Saving and Hoarding", EJ
  • 1933. "An Open Letter to President Roosevelt", New York Times
  • 1933. "The Means to Prosperity", Times
  • 1933. "National Self-Sufficiency", Yale Review
  • 1933. "The Multiplier",NSN
  • 1933. Essays in Biography
  • 1933. The Means to Prosperity
  • 1935. "Commemoration of T.R. Malthus", EJ
  • 1935. "The Future of the Foreign Exchange", Lloyds Bank Review
  • 1936. "William Stanley Jevons", JRSS
  • 1936. "Herbert Somerton Foxwell", EJ
  • 1936. "The Supply of Gold", EJ
  • 1936. "Fluctuations in Net Investment in the United States", EJ
  • 1936. Opšta teorija zaposlenosti, kamate i novca (General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money)
  • 1937. "The General Theory of Empoyment", QJE PDF
  • 1937. "Professor Pigou on Money Wages in Relation to Unemployment", with N. Kaldor, EJ
  • 1937. "Alternative Theories of the Rate of Interest", EJ
  • 1937. "The Ex Ante Theory of the Rate of Interest", EJ
  • 1937. "The Theory of the Rate of Interest", in Lessons of Monetary Experience: In honor of Irving Fisher
  • 1937. "Some Economic Consequences of a Declining Population", Eugenics Review
  • 1938. "Comments on Mr. Robertson's `Mr Keynes and Finance'", EJ.
  • 1938. "Storage and Security", NSN.
  • 1938. "The Policy of Government Storage of Foodstuffs and Raw Materials", EJ
  • 1938. "Mr. Keynes's Consumption Function: A reply", QJE - reply to Holden (1938).
  • 1938. "Mr Keynes on the Distribution of Income and the Propensity to Consume: A reply", RES
  • 1938. Adam Smit kao učenik i učitelj (Adam Smith as Student and Professor), EJ
  • 1938. "Introduction to David Hume, An Abstract of a Treatise on Human Nature", with P. Sraffa
  • 1938. "James E. Meade's Consumers' Credits and Unemployment", EJ
  • 1939. "The Process of Capital Formation", EJ
  • 1939. "Professor Tinbergen's Method", EJ
  • 1939. "Relative Movements of Real Wages and Output", EJ
  • 1939. "The Income and Fiscal Potential of Great Britain", EJ
  • 1940. "The Concept of National Income: Supplementary note", EJ
  • 1940. How to Pay for the War: A radical plan for the Chancellor of the Exchequer
  • 1943. "The Objective of International Price Stability", EJ.
  • 1944. "Mary Paley Marshall", EJ
  • 1946. "The Balance of Payments of the United States", EJ
  • 1947. "Newton the Man", Newton Tercentenary Celebrations


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