Matovi u otvaranju

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U šahu, matovi u otvaranju jesu primjeri kad igrač bude matiran tokom nekoliko prvih poteza u partiji (tj. u otvaranju). Neke uobičajene ili poznate matne sheme imaju vlastite nazive. U takve spadaju Budalin mat, Školski mat, prigušeni mat, mat na posljednjem redu, Bodenov mat, epoleta-mat i Légalov mat.

Brzi matovi[uredi | uredi izvor]

Neke zamke u otvaranju uključuju rani mat:

  • Benoni odbrana: 1.d4 c5 2.d5 e6 3.Sc3 exd5?! 4.Sxd5 Se7 5.Lg5 h6 6.Lh4 Da5+ 7.c3 Sf5?? 8.Da4!! Dxa4 9.Sc7# 1–0 YermolinskyTate, Reno, 2001.
  • Blackburneov gambit: 1.e4 e5 2.Sf3 Sc6 3.Lc4 Sd4?! 4.Sxe5!? Dg5! 5.Sxf7?? Dxg2 6.Tf1 Dxe4+ 7.Le2 Sf3#
  • Budimpeštanski gambit:
    • 1.d4 Sf6 2.c4 e5 3.dxe5 Sg4 4.Lf4 Sc6 5.Sf3 Lb4+ 6.Sbd2 De7 7.a3 Sgxe5! 8.axb4?? Sd3#
    • 1.d4 Sf6 2.c4 e5 3.d5?! Lc5 4.Lg5? Se4! 5.Lxd8?? Lxf2# - Arnold–Hanauer, Philadelphia, 1936.
  • Caro-Kann odbrana:
    • 1.e4 c6 2.d4 d5 3.Sc3 dxe4 4.Sxe4 Sd7 5.De2 Sgf6?? 6.Sd6# - Aljehin–Četiri amatera, simultanka, Palma de Mallorca, 1935.
    • (iz gornjeg primjera) 5.Lc4 Sgf6 6.Sg5 e6 7.De2 Sb6 8.Ld3 h6 9.S5f3 c5 10.dxc5 Sbd7!? 11.b4 b6 12.Sd4! bxc5?? 13.Sc6! Dc7 14.Dxe6+! (Perenyi–Eperjesi, 1–0, Budimpešta, 1974) fxe6 15.Lg6#
    • 1.e4 c6 2.Sc3 d5 3.Sf3 dxe4 4.Sxe4 Lf5?! 5.Sg3 Lg6? 6.h4 h6 7.Se5 Lh7 8.Dh5! g6 9.Lc4! e6 10.De2 Sf6?? 11.Sxf7! Kxf7 12.Dxe6+ (Aljehin–Bruce, 1–0, Plymouth, 1938) Kg7 13.Df7#
    • 1.e4 c6 2.d4 d5 3.Sc3 dxe4 4.Sxe4 Sf6 5.Dd3!? e5?! 6.dxe5 Da5+ 7.Ld2 Dxe5 8.0-0-0! Sxe4?? 9.Dd8+!! Kxd8 10. Lg5++ (RétiTartakower, Beč, 1910) 10...Ke8 11.Td8# ili 10...Kc7 11.Ld8#
  • Holandska odbrana:
    • 1.d4 f5 2.Lg5 h6 3.Lh4 g5 4.Lg3 f4? 5.e3 h5 (5...fxg3?? 6.Dh5#) 6.Ld3!? Th6?? 7.Dxh5+! Txh5 8.Lg6# Teed–Delmar, New York City, 1896.
    • 1.d4 f5 2.h3 Sf6 3.g4 fxg4 4.hxg4 Sxg4 5.Dd3 Sf6?? 6.Txh7! Txh7 7.Dg6#
  • Englundov gambit: 1.d4 e5?! 2.dxe5 Sc6 3.Sf3 De7 4.Lf4 Db4+ 5.Ld2 Dxb2 6.Lc3?? Lb4 7.Dd2 Lxc3 8.Dxc3 Dc1#
  • Francuska odbrana: (Rétijev gambit) 1.e4 e6 2.b3 d5 3.Lb2 dxe4 4.Sc3 Sf6 5.De2 Lb4 6.0-0-0 De7 7.Sxe4 La3 8.Sxf6+ Dxf6 9.Lxa3?? Da1#
  • Birdovo otvaranje: Fromov gambit: 1.f4 e5 2.fxe5 d6 3.exd6 Lxd6 4.Sf3 (4.b3?? Dh4+ 5.g3 Dxg3+ 6.hxg3 Lxg3# - Pantelidakis–Rhine, Chicago, 1974) g5 5.h3?? Lg3# - Napetschnig–Rhine, Chicago, 1977.
  • Grünfeldova odbrana: 1.d4 Sf6 2.c4 g6 3.Sc3 d5 4.cxd5 Sxd5 5.e4 Sxc3 6.bxc3 Lg7 7.Lc4 c5 8.Se2 cxd4 9.cxd4 Sc6 10.Le3 Da5+!? 11.Ld2 Da3 12.Tb1 0-0 13.d5? Se5 14.Lb4? Df3!! 15.gxf3?? Sxf3+ 16.Kf1 Lh3#
  • Kraljev gambit:
    • 1.e4 e5 2.f4 exf4 3.Lc4 Dh4+ 4.g3 fxg3 5.Df3 g2+ 6.Ke2 gxh1=D 7.Dxf7+ Kd8 8.Dxf8#
    • 1.e4 e5 2.f4 exf4 3.b3 Dh4+ 4.g3 fxg3 5.h3 g2+ 6.Ke2 De4+ 7.Kf2 gxh1=S#
  • Marshallova odbrana: 1.d4 d5 2.c4 Sf6?! 3.cxd5 Sxd5 4.Sf3 Sc6? 5.e4 Sf6 6.Sc3 Lg4 7.d5 Se5? 8.Sxe5! Lxd1 9.Lb5+ c6 10.dxc6 Dc7?? 11.cxb7+ Kd8 (nakon 11...Dd7 i 11...Sd7, bijeli matira ili forsira mat sa 12.bxa8=D ili bxa8=T) 12.Sxf7#
  • Nimzowitscheva odbrana: 1.e4 Sc6 2.d4 d5 3.exd5 Dxd5 4.Sf3 Lg4 5.Sc3 Lxf3 6.Sxd5 Lxd1 7.Sxc7+ Kd8 8.Sxa8 Lxc2 9.Lf4 Sxd4 10.Sc7? e5! 11.Lxe5?? Lb4#. Također je moguće 7...Kd7 8.Sxa8 Lxc2 9.Lf4 e5 10.dxe5 Lb4+ 11.Ke2 Sge7 12.e6+ fxe6 13.Sc7?? Sd4+ 14.Ke3 Sef5# - Kiss–Barcza, Debrecen, 1930.
  • Owenova odbrana: 1.e4 b6 2.d4 Lb7 3.Ld3 f5?! 4.exf5! Lxg2 5.Dh5+ g6 6.fxg6! Sf6?? 7.gxh7+! Sxh5 8.Lg6# - Greco–N. N, Rim, 1619.
  • Ruska odbrana: 1.e4 e5 2.Sf3 Sf6 3.Sxe5 Sc6?! 4.Sxc6 dxc6 5.d3 Lc5 6.Lg5? Sxe4! 7.Lxd8?? Lxf2+ 8.Ke2 Lg4#
  • Philidorova odbrana: 1.e4 e5 2.Sf3 d6 3.Lc4 Lg4?! 4.Sc3 g6? 5.Sxe5! Lxd1?? 6.Lxf7+ Ke7 7.Sd5# - Légal–Saint Brie, Pariz, 1750; ova matna shema danas se zove Légalov mat
  • Richter-Veresovljev napad 1.d4 Sf6 2.Sc3 d5 3.Lg5 c5!? 4.Lxf6 exf6!? 5.dxc5 d4 6.Se4 Lf5 7.Sg3? Lxc5! 8.Sxf5? Da5+! 9.c3 dxc3 10.b4 Lxb4 11.Dc2 Dxf5! 12.Dxf5?? c2# - N. N–Rhine, Chicago, 1977.
  • Moderna odbrana (Robatscheva): 1.e4 g6 2.Sf3 d6 3.Lc4 Sd7?? 4.Lxf7+! Kxf7 5.Sg5+ Kf6 (u suprotnom 6.Se6 osvaja damu) 6.Df3+ Kxg5 (6...Ke5 7.d4+ Kxd4 8.Dc3#) 7.d4+ Kh4 8.Dh3#
  • Španska partija:
    • 1.e4 e5 2.Sf3 Sc6 3.Lb5 a6 4.La4 Sf6 5.0-0 Sxe4 6.d4 exd4?! 7.Te1 d5 8.Sxd4 Ld6 9.Sxc6 Lxh2+! 10.Kh1! Dh4 11.Txe4+! dxe4 12.Dd8+! Dxd8 13.Sxd8+ Kxd8 14.Kxh2 f5?? 15.Lg5# [1]
    • 1.e4 e5 2.Sf3 Sc6 3.Lb5 a6 4.Lxc6 dxc6 5.0-0 Lg4 6.h3 h5 7.d3 Df6 8.Le3 Se7 9.Sbd2 Sg6 10.hxg4? hxg4 11.Sg5 Sf4 12.Dxg4 Dxg5! (Hans Böhm–Román Hernández, 0–1, Amsterdam, 1979) 13.Dxg5 Se2#[2]
    • 1.e4 e5 2.Sf3 Sc6 3.Lb5 Sf6 4.0-0 d6 5.d4 Sxe4? 6.d5 a6 7.Ld3 Sf6 8.dxc6 e4 9.Te1 d5 10.Le2! exf3?? (crni je morao igrati 10...bxc6) 11.cxb7 Lxb7 (ako 11...fxe2, 12.bxa8=D) 12.Lb5# Nimzowitsch–Ryckhoff, simultanka, Pärnu 1910[3][4]
  • Skandinavska odbrana 1.e4 d5 2.exd5 Dxd5 3.Sc3 Da5 4.d4 c6 5.Sf3 Lg4 6.Lf4 e6 7.h3 Lxf3 8.Dxf3 Lb4 9.Le2 Sd7 10.a3 0-0-0?? 11.axb4!! Dxa1+ 12.Kd2! Dxh1 13.Dxc6+! bxc6 14.La6# Canal–N. N, Budimpešta, 1934 ("Peruanska besmrtna": bijeli žrtvuje oba topa i damu kako bi partiju završio Bodenovim matom)
  • Sicilijanska odbrana:
    • 1.e4 c5 2.d4 cxd4 3.c3 dxc3 4.Sxc3 Sc6 5.Sf3 e6 6.Lc4 Dc7 7.0-0 Sf6 8.De2 Sg4! 9.h3?? Sd4! (osvajajući najmanje bijelu damu) 10.Sxd4? Dh2# (Sibirska zamka)
    • 1.e4 c5 2.d4 cxd4 3.c3 d5 4.exd5 Dxd5 5.Sf3?! Lg4 6.Da4+ Sc6 7.Sxd4 Ld7 8.Sb5? 0-0-0! 9.Sxa7+?? Sxa7 10.Dxa7 Dd1+!! (Dutch–Sugden, 0–1, London, 1964) 11.Kxd1 Lg4+ 12.Kc2 Ld1# ili 12.Ke1 Td1# (završetak nevjerovatno sličan onome u partiji Réti–Tartakower, Beč, 1910, navedenoj iznad, pod Caro-Kann odbranom)
    • 1.e4 c5 2.Sf3 Sf6 3.e5 Sd5 4.Sc3 e6 5.Sxd5 exd5 6.d4 Sc6 7.dxc5 Lxc5 8.Dxd5 Db6 9.Lc4 Lxf2+ 10.Ke2 0-0 11.Tf1 Lc5 12.Sg5 Sd4+ 13.Kd1 Se6 14.Se4 d6 15.exd6 Lxd6?? 16.Sxd6 Td8 17.Lf4! Sxf4? 18.Dxf7+ Kh8 19.Dg8+! (Unzicker–Sarapu, 1–0, 19. šahovska olimpijada, Siegen, 1970) Txg8 20.Sf7#
    • 1.e4 c5 2.Sf3 d6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Sxd4 Sf6 5.Sc3 a6 6.Lg5 e6 7.f4 b5 8.e5 dxe5 9.fxe5 Dc7 10.De2 Sfd7 11.0-0-0 Lb7 12.Dg4 Dxe5 13.Ld3 Sf6? 14.Lxf6 Dxf6? 15.The1 h5 16.Sxe6! Le7 [16...hxg4 17.Lxb5+! Ke7 (17...axb5? 18.Sc7# ili 18.Sxg7#) 18.Sxf8+ Kxf8? 19.Te8#] 17.Lxb5+! axb5 18.Sc7+! Kf8 19.Td8+! Lxd8 20.Te8# - Talj–N. N, Engleska, 1974.
    • 1.e4 c5 2.Sf3 e6 3.d4 cxd4 4.Sxd4 Sf6 5.e5 Sd5? 6.c4 Se7? 7.Sb5! a6 8.Sd6#
  • Igra triju skakača 1.e4 e5 2.Sf3 Sc6 3.Sc3 g6 4.d4 exd4 5.Sd5 Lg7 6.Lg5 Sge7? 7.Sxd4! Lxd4?? 8.Dxd4! Sxd4 9.Sf6+ Kf8 10.Lh6#
  • Fegatello napad 1.e4 e5 2.Sf3 Sc6 3.Lc4 Sf6 4.Sg5 d5 5.exd5 Sxd5 6.Sxf7 Kxf7 7.Df3+ Ke8? 8.Lxd5 Ld7?? (ili nekoliko drugih poteza) 9.Df7#
  • Bečka partija 1.e4 e5 2.Sc3 Sf6 3.Lc4 Sxe4 4.Lxf7+ (4.Sxe4 d5) Kxf7 5.Sxe4 Sc6 6.Df3+ Kg8?? 7.Sg5! Dxg5 8.Dd5#

Također pogledajte[uredi | uredi izvor]

Reference[uredi | uredi izvor]

  1. ^ Chess tile rd.svg Prikaz partije Pandolfini–N. N, 1970 na Chessgames.com (en)
  2. ^ Chess tile rd.svg Prikaz partije Böhm-Hernandez, Amsterdam 1979 na Chessgames.com (en)
  3. ^ Aron Nimzovich, Moj sistem, David McKay, 1947, str. 131; ISBN 0-679-14025-5.
  4. ^ Chess tile rd.svg Prikaz partije Nimzowitsch–N. N, Pärnu, 1910 na Chessgames.com (en)

Dodatna literatura[uredi | uredi izvor]