Viridiplantae

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Viridiplantae
Asortiman virusa i talofita u plimnom bazenu, Tajvan
Asortiman virusa i talofita u plimnom bazenu, Tajvan
Sistematika
Sinonimi
  • Plantae Copeland, 1938, 1956[1][2]
  • Euchlorophyta Whittaker, 1969[3]
  • Chlorophyta sensu van den Hoek & Jahns, 1978[4]
  • Chlorobionta Jeffrey 1982, emend. Bremer 1985, emend. Lewis and McCourt 2004
  • Chlorobiota Kendrick and Crane 1997
  • Chloroplastida Adl et al., 2005
  • Viridiplantae Cavalier-Smith 1981[5]
  • Phyta Barkley 1939 emed. Holt & Uidica 2007
  • Cormophyta Endlicher, 1836
  • Cormobionta Rothmaler, 1948
  • Euplanta Barkley, 1949
  • Telomobionta Takhtajan, 1964
  • Embryobionta Cronquist et al., 1966
  • Metaphyta Whittaker, 1969

Viridiplantae (u prevodu "zelene biljke")[5] su kladus eukariotskih organizama sa oko 450.000–500.000 vrsta i ima značajnu ulogu i i kopnenim i u vodenim ekosistemima.[6] Sačinjavaju ih zelene alge koje su prije svega vodene, i kopnene biljke (embriofite), koje su se pojavile unutar njih.[7][8][9]

Zelene alge tradicijski isključuju kopnene biljke i čine ih parafiletskom skupinom. Otkako je spoznato da su embriofiti nastali iz zelenih algi, neki autori počinju ih uključivati u ovaj kladus.[10][11][12][13][14] Imaju ćelije sa celuloznim zidovima i primarne hloroplaste, izvedene iz endosimbioza sa cijanobakterijama koje sadrže hlorofili a i b, bez fikobilina. Postoji više od 350.000 vrsta viridiplanta.[15] U nekim sistemima klasifikacije grupa se tretira kao carstvo,[16] pod raznim imenima, npr., Viridiplantae, Chlorobionta, ili jednostavno Plantae, a potonje se tradicijski proširuje na biljno carstvo i uključuje zelene alge. Adl i drugi, koji su 2005. godine napravili klasifikaciju za sve eukariote, za ovu grupu uveli su naziv Chloroplastida, odražavajući grupu koja ima primarni hloroplast sa zelenim hlorofilom. Odbacili su ime Viridiplantae s obrazloženjem da neke vrste nisu biljke, kako se tradicijski razumije.[17]

Viridiplantae čine dva kladus: Chlorophyta i Streptophyta kai i bazne Mesostigmatophyceae i Chlorokybophyceae.[18][19] Smatra se da, zajedno sa Rhodophyta i Glaucophyta, Viridiplantae pripadaju većem kladusu zvanom Archaeplastida ili Primoplantae. Taksonomska evaluacija eukariotas bazira na distribuciji miozina, pokazala je da su Viridiplantae izgubile miozina klase-I.[20]

Filogenija i klasifikacija[uredi | uredi izvor]

Leliaert et al. 2012[uredi | uredi izvor]

Pojednostavljena filogenija Viridiplantae, prema Leliaert et al. 2012.[21]

  • Viridiplantae
  • core chlorophytes

Kladogram[uredi | uredi izvor]

Slijedi konsenzusna rekonstrukcija odnosa zelenih algi, uglavnom zasnovania na molekulskim podacima.[12][19][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28]

Viridiplantae/

Mesostigmatophyceae

Spirotaenia

Chlorokybophyceae

Chlorophyta
Tetraphytina
Chlorophytina

Ulvophyceae

Chlorophyceae

Trebouxiophyceae

Chlorodendrophyceae

Pedinophyceae

Prasinophytes Kladus VIIA

Prasinophytes Kladus VIIC

Pycnococcaceae

Nephroselmidophyceae

Mamiellophyceae

Pyramimonadales

Palmophyllophyceae

Palmophyllales

Prasinococcales

Streptophyta/

Klebsormidiophyceae

Phragmoplastophyta

Charophyceae

Mesotaeniaceae

Zygnematophyceae

Embryophytes (kopnene biljke)

Coleochaetophyceae

Charophyta
Zelene alge

Također pogledaj[uredi | uredi izvor]

Reference[uredi | uredi izvor]

  1. ^ Copeland HF (1938). "The kingdoms of organisms". Quart. Rev. Biol. 13 (4): 383–420. doi:10.1086/394568.
  2. ^ Copeland HF (1956). The Classification of Lower Organisms. Palo Alto: Pacific Books. str. 6.
  3. ^ Whittaker RH (January 1969). "New concepts of kingdoms or organisms. Evolutionary relations are better represented by new classifications than by the traditional two kingdoms" (PDF). Science. 163 (3863): 150–60. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.403.5430. doi:10.1126/science.163.3863.150. PMID 5762760. Arhivirano s originala (PDF), 2017-11-17. Pristupljeno 2015-01-31.
  4. ^ van den Hoek C, Jahns HM (1978). Einführung in die Phykologie (jezik: German). Stuttgart: Georg Thieme Verlag. ISBN 9783135511016.CS1 održavanje: Nepoznati jezik (link)
  5. ^ a b Cavalier-Smith T (1981). "Eukaryote kingdoms: seven or nine?". Bio Systems. 14 (3–4): 461–81. doi:10.1016/0303-2647(81)90050-2. PMID 7337818.
  6. ^ Leebens-Mack JH, Barker MS, Carpenter EJ, Deyholos MK, Gitzendanner MA, Graham SW, et al. (One Thousand Plant Transcriptomes Initiative) (October 2019). "One thousand plant transcriptomes and the phylogenomics of green plants". Nature. 574 (7780): 679–685. doi:10.1038/s41586-019-1693-2. PMC 6872490. PMID 31645766.
  7. ^ Cocquyt E, Verbruggen H, Leliaert F, Zechman FW, Sabbe K, De Clerck O (February 2009). "Gain and loss of elongation factor genes in green algae". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 9: 39. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-9-39. PMC 2652445. PMID 19216746.
  8. ^ Becker B (2007). Function and evolution of the vacuolar compartment in green algae and land plants (Viridiplantae). International Review of Cytology. 264. str. 1–24. doi:10.1016/S0074-7696(07)64001-7. ISBN 9780123742636. PMID 17964920.
  9. ^ Kim E, Graham LE (July 2008). Redfield RJ (ured.). "EEF2 analysis challenges the monophyly of Archaeplastida and Chromalveolata". PLOS One. 3 (7): e2621. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002621. PMC 2440802. PMID 18612431.
  10. ^ Delwiche CF, Timme RE (June 2011). "Plants". Current Biology. 21 (11): R417–22. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2011.04.021. PMID 21640897.
  11. ^ "Charophycean Green Algae Home Page". www.life.umd.edu. Pristupljeno 2018-02-24.
  12. ^ a b Ruhfel BR, Gitzendanner MA, Soltis PS, Soltis DE, Burleigh JG (February 2014). "From algae to angiosperms-inferring the phylogeny of green plants (Viridiplantae) from 360 plastid genomes". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 14: 23. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-14-23. PMC 3933183. PMID 24533922.
  13. ^ Delwiche CF, Cooper ED (October 2015). "The Evolutionary Origin of a Terrestrial Flora". Current Biology. 25 (19): R899–910. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2015.08.029. PMID 26439353.
  14. ^ Parfrey LW, Lahr DJ, Knoll AH, Katz LA (August 2011). "Estimating the timing of early eukaryotic diversification with multigene molecular clocks". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 108 (33): 13624–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.1110633108. PMC 3158185. PMID 21810989.
  15. ^ Smith SA, Beaulieu JM, Donoghue MJ (February 2009). "Mega-phylogeny approach for comparative biology: an alternative to supertree and supermatrix approaches". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 9: 37. doi:10.1186/1471-2148-9-37. PMC 2645364. PMID 19210768.
  16. ^ "Viridiplantae". Pristupljeno 2009-03-08.
  17. ^ Adl SM, Simpson AG, Farmer MA, Andersen RA, Anderson OR, Barta JR, et al. (2005). "The new higher level classification of eukaryotes with emphasis on the taxonomy of protists". The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology. 52 (5): 399–451. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2005.00053.x. PMID 16248873.
  18. ^ Simon A, Glöckner G, Felder M, Melkonian M, Becker B (February 2006). "EST analysis of the scaly green flagellate Mesostigma viride (Streptophyta): implications for the evolution of green plants (Viridiplantae)". BMC Plant Biology. 6: 2. doi:10.1186/1471-2229-6-2. PMC 1413533. PMID 16476162.
  19. ^ a b Sánchez-Baracaldo P, Raven JA, Pisani D, Knoll AH (September 2017). "Early photosynthetic eukaryotes inhabited low-salinity habitats". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 114 (37): E7737–E7745. doi:10.1073/pnas.1620089114. PMC 5603991. PMID 28808007.
  20. ^ Odronitz F, Kollmar M (2007). "Drawing the tree of eukaryotic life based on the analysis of 2,269 manually annotated myosins from 328 species". Genome Biology. 8 (9): R196. doi:10.1186/gb-2007-8-9-r196. PMC 2375034. PMID 17877792.
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  22. ^ a b Marin B (September 2012). "Nested in the Chlorellales or independent class? Phylogeny and classification of the Pedinophyceae (Viridiplantae) revealed by molecular phylogenetic analyses of complete nuclear and plastid-encoded rRNA operons". Protist. 163 (5): 778–805. doi:10.1016/j.protis.2011.11.004. PMID 22192529.
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Vanjski linkovi[uredi | uredi izvor]