Ćirilo i Metodije

S Wikipedije, slobodne enciklopedije
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Ćirilo i Metodije
Metodije, freska u crkvi sv. Nauma, Ohrid

Ćirilo (Konstantin) i Metodije (Grčki jezik Κύριλλος καὶ Μεθόδιος, Staroslavenski jezik Кѷриллъ и Меѳодїи) dva su brata porijeklom iz Grčke. Bili su bizantijski hrišćanski teolozi i hrišċanski misionari. Kroz svoj rad utjecali su na kulturni razvoj svih Slavena, zbog čega su dobili naziv "slavenski apostoli".[1] Smatraju se prvim osobama koje su Južnim Slavenima, kao i području Bosne i Hercegovine donijeli pismenost. Zaslužni su za osmišljavanje glagoljske abecede, prve abecede koja se koristi za prevođenje staroslavenskog jezika.[2] Nakon njihove smrti, njihovi učenici su nastavili svoj misionarski rad među drugim Slavenima. Oba brata se u pravoslavnoj crkvi poštuju kao sveci sa nazivom "jednaki apostolima". Godine 1880. papa Lav XIII ih je uveo u svoj blagdanski kalendar Rimokatoličke crkve. Godine 1980. papa Ivan Pavao II proglasio ih je svetim zaštitnicima Evrope zajedno sa Benediktom iz Nursije.[3]

Rana karijera

Rani život

Ćirilo i Metodije dva su grčka misionara rođena u okolini Soluna, u današnja Grčka - Ćiril oko 827–828, a Metodije oko 815–820. Ċiril je navodno bio najmlađi od sedam braće. Rođen je pod imenom Konstantin,[4] ali je dobio ime Ċiril nakon što je postao monah u Rimu neposredno prije svoje smrti,[5][6][7] prema "Vita Cyrilli" ("Život Ćirila"). Metodije je rođen kao Mihael i dobio je ime Metodije nakon što je postao monah na planini Olimpusu u Miziji (današnji Uludağ), na sjeverozapadu Turske..[8] Njihov otac se zvao Leo i po vojnom činu u bizantijskoj vojsci je bio droungarij u upravnoj jedinici tema u Solunu, a njihova majka se zvala Marija.

Tačno etničko porijeklo braće je nepoznato, a postoji kontroverza o tome da li su Ćiril i Metodije bili slavenskog[9] porijekla, ili oboje.[10] ili bizantijsko grčkog.[11] Dva brata su izgubila oca kada je Ćirilu bilo četrnaest godina, a moćni ministar (teoktistos), koji je bio dromologofet i jedan od glavnih ministara Carstva, postao je njihov zaštitnik. On je zajedno sa regentom vardom mamikonijanom, bio odgovoran za pokretanje dalekosežnog obrazovnog programa u okviru Bizantijskog Carstva, koji je kulminirao osnivanjem Univerziteta u Konstantinopolju (Univerzitet Magnaura), gdje je Ċiril trebao podučavati. Ćiril je bio sveštenik neko vrijeme nakon školovanja, dok je njegov brat Metodije ostao đakon sve do 867. - 868. n. e.[12]

Porijeklo

U Moravsku ih je poslao bizantski car Mihajlo III, a na poziv moravskog kneza Rastislava. Cilj je bio širenje kršćanske vjere među mnogobožačkim narodom, Slavenima. S obzirom da su propovijedi trebale biti davane na jeziku ovog naroda, jer će oni tako lakše shvatiti i prihvatiti novu vjeru, Ćirilo je bio zadužen za smišljanje novog pisma.

Prvo pismo i jezik

Prvo slavensko pismo nazvano je glagoljica i njime je napisana prva slavenska knjiga - prijevod dijelova Biblije. Ćirilo je za osnovu narodnog jezika odlučio uzeti narječje koje je naučio u okolini Soluna. Razlike među narječjima i slavenskim jezicima u to doba nisu bile velike, pa je ovaj jezik bio općeprihvaćan i danas se naziva staroslavenskim.

Smrti

Ćirilo i Metodije nisu bili proganjani za života, a nakon njihove smrti (Ćirilo je preminuo 869, a Metodije 885) njihovi su učenici istjerani iz Moravske. Tako su se prvi put susreli s Južnim Slavenima i prenijeli im staroslavenski jezik i glagoljicu.

Ćirilica

Glavni članak: Ćirilica

Južnoslavenski svećenici porijeklom iz reda Ćirila i Metodija u početku su pisali glagoljicom. Međutim, jedan od Ćirilovih učenika, vjerovatno Kliment Ohridski, koji je bio i pisac životopisa o Ćirilu pod nazivom Žitije Sv. Ćirila, uveo je ćirilicu. Ćirilica je bila drugo slavensko pismo načinjeno prema grčkim slovima. Vrlo brzo je potisnula glagoljicu i zavladala najprije u Bugarskoj, ali i u Srbiji, Rusiji i dijelom u Bosni. U Bosnu su je najvjerovatnije donijeli Makedonci.

Također pogledajte

Reference

  1. ^ "(PDF) Figures of (trans-) national religious memory of the Orthodox southern Slavs before 1945: an outline on the examples of SS. Cyril and Methodius". ResearchGate (jezik: engleski). Pristupljeno 2018-11-15. 
  2. ^ Liturgy of the Hours, Volume III, 14 February.
  3. ^ "Egregiae Virtutis". Arhivirano od originala, 4 January 2009. Pristupljeno 26 April 2009.  Nepoznat parametar |df= ignorisan (pomoć) Apostolic letter of Pope John Paul II, 31 December 1980 Šablon:La icon
  4. ^ Cyril and Methodius, Encyclopædia Britannica 2005
  5. ^ Vita Constantini slavica, Cap. 18: Denkschriften der kaiserl. Akademie der Wissenschaften 19, Wien 1870, p. 246
  6. ^ Chapter 18 of the Slavonic Life of Constantine Archived 15 December 2012 at the Wayback Machine., an English translation
  7. ^ English Translation of the 18th Chapter of the Vita Constantini, Liturgy of the Hours, Proper of Saints, 14 February
  8. ^ "SS.Cyril and Methodius". www.carpatho-rusyn.org. Arhivirano od originala, 17 March 2016. Pristupljeno 2 May 2018.  Nepoznat parametar |df= ignorisan (pomoć)
  9. ^
    • 1. Mortimer Chambers, Barbara Hanawalt, Theodore Rabb, Isser Woloch, Raymond Grew. The Western Experience with Powerweb. Eighth Edition. McGraw-Hill Higher Education 2002. University of Michigan. p. 214. ISBN 9780072565447
    ...Two Christian brothers of Slavic descent, Cyril and Methodius, set out in about 862 as missionaries from the Byzantine...
    • 2. Balkan Studies, Volume 22. Hidryma Meletōn Chersonēsou tou Haimou (Thessalonikē, Greece). The Institute, 1981. Original from the University of Michigan. p. 381
    ...Being of Slavic descent, both of them spoke the old Slavic language fluently...
    • 3. Loring M. Danforth. The Macedonian Conflict: Ethnic Nationalism in a Transnational World. Princeton University Press, 1995. p. 49 ISBN 9780691043562.
    ...In the ninth century two brothers Cyril and Methodius, Macedonian educators of Slavic origin from Solun, brought literacy and Christianity to the Slavs...
    • 4. Ihor Ševčenko. Byzantium and the Slavs: In Letters and Culture'. Harvard Ukrainian Research Institute, 1991. p. 481. ISBN 9780916458126
    ...63-68 (Cyril and Methodius were Slavs)...There remains that argument for Cyril's and Methodius' Slavic origin which has to do with the Slavic translation of the Gospels and...
    • 5. Roland Herbert Bainton. Christianity: An American Heritage Book Series. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt, 2000. p. 156. ISBN 9780618056873
    ...Two missionaries of Slavic origin, Cyril (baptized Constantine) and Methodius, adapted the Greek alphabet and translated both the Bible and the liturgy into the Slavic tongue...
    • 6. John Shea. Macedonia and Greece: The Struggle to Define a New Balkan Nation. McFarland, 1997. p. 56 . ISBN 9780786437672
    ...Byzantine emperor Michael, on the request of the Moravian prince Ratislav, decided to send Slav priests as educators, he chose the Salonika brothers Cyril and Methodius...
    • 7. UNESCO Features: A Fortnightly Press Service. UNESCO. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 1984. University of Michigan
    ...They may have been of wholly Slavic descent or of mixed Greco-Slav origin...
    • 8. The Pakistan Review, Volume 19. Ferozsons Limited, 1971. University of California. p. 41
    ...century in Salonika, then one of the largest towns in the Byzantine Empire. The brothers were of Slav origin...
    • 9. Balkania, Volume 7. Balkania Publishing Company, 1973. Indiana University. p. 10
    ...Cyril and Methodius not only lived among Slavs. ...of Slavonic, which they not only spoke and understood, but in which they also wrote—translated and composed—and for which they invented an alphabet, is proof of their Slav origin...
    • 10. Bryce Dale Lyon, Herbert Harvey Rowen, Theodore S. Hamerow. A History of the Western World, Volume 1. Rand McNally College Pub. Co., 1974. Northwestern University. p. 239
    ...brothers of Slavic origin, Cyril and Methodius, who, after being ordained at Constantinople, preached the Gospel to the Slavs...
    • 11. Roland Herbert Bainton. The history of Christianity. Nelson, 1964. p. 169
    ...Two missionaries of Slavic origin, Cyril (baptized Constantine) and Methodius, adapted the Greek alphabet and translated both the Bible and the liturgy into the Slavic tongue...
    • 12. Carl Waldman, Catherine Mason. Encyclopedia of European Peoples: Facts on File library of world history. Infobase Publishing, 2006. p. 752. ISBN 9781438129181
    ...There is disagreement as to whether Cyril and his brother Methodius were Greek or Slavic, but they knew the Slavic dialect spoken in Macedonia...
    • 13. Frank Andrews. Ancient Slavs'. Worzalla Publishing Company, 1976. University of Wisconsin - Madison. p. 163.
    ...Cyril and Methodius derived from a rich family of Salonica, perhaps of Slavic origin, but Grecized in those times. Methodius (815–885)...
    • 14. Johann Heinrich Kurtz, John Macpherson. Church History. Hodder and Stoughton, 1891. University of California. p. 431
    ...Born at Thessalonica, and so probably of Slavic descent, at least acquainted with the language of the Slavs,...
    • 15. William Leslie King. Investment and Achievement: A Study in Christian Progress. Jennings and Graham, 1913. Columbia University.
    ...This man and his brother Cyril became the Methodius and Cyril apostles of the Slavic people. These two brothers seemed to have been raised up for such a mission. They were probably of Slavic descent...
  10. ^
    • Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001–05, s.v. "Cyril and Methodius, Saints" "Greek missionaries, brothers, called Apostles to the Slavs and fathers of Slavonic literature."
    • Encyclopædia Britannica, Major alphabets of the world, Cyrillic and Glagolitic alphabets, 2008, O.Ed. "The two early Slavic alphabets, the Cyrillic and the Glagolitic, were invented by St. Cyril, or Constantine (c. 827–869), and St. Methodius (c. 825–884). These men were Greeks from Thessalonica who became apostles to the southern Slavs, whom they converted to Christianity.
    • Encyclopedia of World Cultures, David H. Levinson, 1991, p.239, s.v., "Social Science"
    • Eric M. Meyers, The Oxford Encyclopedia of Archaeology in the Near East, p.151, 1997
    • Lunt, Slavic Review, June 1964, p. 216; Roman Jakobson, Crucial problems of Cyrillo-Methodian Studies; Leonid Ivan Strakhovsky, A Handbook of Slavic Studies, p.98
    • V.Bogdanovich, History of the ancient Serbian literature, Belgrade, 1980, p.119
    • Hastings, Adrian (1997). The construction of nationhood: ethnicity, religion, and nationalism. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. str. 126. ISBN 0-521-62544-0. The activity of the brothers Constantine (later renamed Cyril) and Methodius, aristocratic Greek priests who were sent from Constantinople. 
    • Fletcher, R. A. (1999). The barbarian conversion: from paganism to Christianity. Berkeley, California: University of California Press. str. 327. ISBN 0-520-21859-0. 
    • Cizevskij, Dmitrij; Zenkovsky, Serge A.; Porter, Richard E. Comparative History of Slavic Literatures. Vanderbilt University Press. str. vi. ISBN 0-8265-1371-9. Two Greek brothers from Salonika, Constantine who later became a monk and took the name Cyril and Methodius. 
    • The illustrated guide to the Bible. New York: Oxford University Press. 1998. str. 14. ISBN 0-19-521462-5. In Eastern Europe, the first translations of the Bible into the Slavonic languages were made by the Greek missionaries Cyril and Methodius in the 860s 
    • Smalley, William Allen (1991). Translation as mission: Bible translation in the modern missionary movement. Macon, Ga.: Mercer. str. 25. ISBN 978-0-86554-389-8. The most important instance where translation and the beginning church did coincide closely was in Slavonic under the brothers Cyril and Methodius, with the Bible completed by A.D. 880. This was a missionary translation but unusual again (from a modern point of view) because not a translation into the dialect spoken where the missionaries were. The brothers were Greeks who had been brought up in Macedonia. 
  11. ^
    • 1. Philip Lief Group. Saintly Support: A Prayer For Every Problem. Andrews McMeel Publishing, 2003. p. 37. ISBN 9780740733369
    ...Cyril was born of Greek nobility connected with the senate of Thessalonica, although his mother may have been of Slavic descent...
    • 2. UNESCO Features: A Fortnightly Press Service. United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization., 1984. University of Michigan
    ...They may have been of wholly Slavic descent or of mixed Greco-Slav origin...
  12. ^ The Lives of the Ninth-Century Popes (Liber Pontificalis)– Google Knihy. Books.google.cz. January 1, 1995. ISBN 0-85323-479-5. Pristupljeno 2015-12-24.